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52
Schemata, Distributions and Graphical Models in Evolutionary Optimization
 Journal of Heuristics
, 1999
"... In this paper the optimization of additively decomposed discrete functions is investigated. For these functions genetic algorithms have exhibited a poor performance. First the schema theory of genetic algorithms is reformulated in probability theory terms. A schema denes the structure of a marginal ..."
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Cited by 88 (8 self)
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In this paper the optimization of additively decomposed discrete functions is investigated. For these functions genetic algorithms have exhibited a poor performance. First the schema theory of genetic algorithms is reformulated in probability theory terms. A schema denes the structure of a marginal distribution. Then the conceptual algorithm BEDA is introduced. BEDA uses a Boltzmann distribution to generate search points. From BEDA a new algorithm, FDA, is derived. FDA uses a factorization of the distribution. The factorization captures the structure of the given function. The factorization problem is closely connected to the theory of conditional independence graphs. For the test functions considered, the performance of FDA in number of generations till convergence is similar to that of a genetic algorithm for the OneMax function. This result is theoretically explained.
Continuous Iterated Density Estimation Evolutionary Algorithms Within The IDEA Framework
, 2000
"... In this paper, we formalize the notion of performing optimization by iterated density estimation evolutionary algorithms as the IDEA framework. These algorithms build probabilistic models and estimate probability densities based upon a selection of available points. We show how these probabili ..."
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Cited by 44 (4 self)
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In this paper, we formalize the notion of performing optimization by iterated density estimation evolutionary algorithms as the IDEA framework. These algorithms build probabilistic models and estimate probability densities based upon a selection of available points. We show how these probabilistic models can be built and used for dierent probability density functions within the IDEA framework. We put the emphasis on techniques for vectors of continuous random variables and thereby introduce new continuous evolutionary optimization algorithms.
Expanding From Discrete To Continuous Estimation Of Distribution Algorithms: The IDEA
 In Parallel Problem Solving From Nature  PPSN VI
, 2000
"... . The direct application of statistics to stochastic optimization based on iterated density estimation has become more important and present in evolutionary computation over the last few years. The estimation of densities over selected samples and the sampling from the resulting distributions, i ..."
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Cited by 30 (7 self)
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. The direct application of statistics to stochastic optimization based on iterated density estimation has become more important and present in evolutionary computation over the last few years. The estimation of densities over selected samples and the sampling from the resulting distributions, is a combination of the recombination and mutation steps used in evolutionary algorithms. We introduce the framework named IDEA to formalize this notion. By combining continuous probability theory with techniques from existing algorithms, this framework allows us to dene new continuous evolutionary optimization algorithms. 1 Introduction Algorithms in evolutionary optimization guide their search through statistics based on a vector of samples, often called a population. By using this stochastic information, non{deterministic induction is performed in order to attempt to use the structure of the search space and thereby aid the search for the optimal solution. In order to perform induct...
The estimation of distributions and the minimum relative entropy principle
 Evolutionary Computation
, 2005
"... Estimation of Distribution Algorithms EDA have been proposed as an extension of genetic algorithms. In this paper the relation of EDA to algorithms developed in statistics, artificial intelligence, and statistical physics is explained. The major design issues are discussed within a general interdisc ..."
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Cited by 23 (3 self)
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Estimation of Distribution Algorithms EDA have been proposed as an extension of genetic algorithms. In this paper the relation of EDA to algorithms developed in statistics, artificial intelligence, and statistical physics is explained. The major design issues are discussed within a general interdisciplinary framework. It is shown that maximum entropy approximations play a crucial role. All proposed algorithms try to minimize the KullbackLeibler divergence ÃÄ � between the unknown distribution Ô Ü and a class Õ Ü of approximations. The KullbackLeibler divergence is not symmetric. Approximations which suppose that the function to be optimized is additively decomposed (ADF) minimize ÃÄ � Õ�Ô, the methods which learn the approximate model from data minimize ÃÄ � Ô�Õ. This minimization is identical to maximizing the loglikelihood. In the paper three classes of algorithms are discussed. FDA uses the ADF to compute an approximate factorization of the unknown distribution. The factors are marginal distributions, whose values are computed from samples. The BetheKikuchi approach developed in statistical physics uses bivariate or higher order marginals. The values of the marginals are computed from a difficult minimization problem. The third class learns the factorization from the data. We analyze our learning algorithm LFDA in detail. It is shown that learning is faced with two problems: first, to detect the important dependencies between the variables, and second, to create an acyclic Bayesian network of bounded clique size.
An Estimation of Distribution Algorithm for Nurse Scheduling
 ANNALS OF OPERATIONS RESEARCH
, 2006
"... Schedules can be built in a similar way to a human scheduler by using a set of rules that involve domain knowledge. This paper presents an Estimation of Distribution Algorithm (EDA) for the nurse scheduling problem, which involves choosing a suitable scheduling rule from a set for the assignment of ..."
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Cited by 22 (8 self)
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Schedules can be built in a similar way to a human scheduler by using a set of rules that involve domain knowledge. This paper presents an Estimation of Distribution Algorithm (EDA) for the nurse scheduling problem, which involves choosing a suitable scheduling rule from a set for the assignment of each nurse. Unlike previous work that used Genetic Algorithms (GAs) to implement implicit learning, the learning in the proposed algorithm is explicit, i.e. we identify and mix building blocks directly. The EDA is applied to implement such explicit learning by building a Bayesian network of the joint distribution of solutions. The conditional probability of each variable in the network is computed according to an initial set of promising solutions. Subsequently, each new instance for each variable is generated by using the corresponding conditional probabilities, until all variables have been generated, i.e. in our case, a new rule string has been obtained. Another set of rule strings will be generated in this way, some of which will replace previous strings based on fitness selection. If stopping conditions are not met, the conditional probabilities for all nodes in the Bayesian network are updated again using the current set of promising rule strings. Computational results from 52 real data instances demonstrate the success of this approach. It is also suggested that the learning mechanism in the proposed approach might be suitable for other scheduling problems.
Parallel estimation of distribution algorithms
, 2002
"... The thesis deals with the new evolutionary paradigm based on the concept of Estimation of Distribution Algorithms (EDAs) that use probabilistic model of promising solutions found so far to obtain new candidate solutions of optimized problem. There are six primary goals of this thesis: 1. Suggestion ..."
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Cited by 22 (3 self)
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The thesis deals with the new evolutionary paradigm based on the concept of Estimation of Distribution Algorithms (EDAs) that use probabilistic model of promising solutions found so far to obtain new candidate solutions of optimized problem. There are six primary goals of this thesis: 1. Suggestion of a new formal description of EDA algorithm. This high level concept can be used to compare the generality of various probabilistic models by comparing the properties of underlying mappings. Also, some convergence issues are discussed and theoretical ways for further improvements are proposed. 2. Development of new probabilistic model and methods capable of dealing with continuous parameters. The resulting Mixed Bayesian Optimization Algorithm (MBOA) uses a set of decision trees to express the probability model. Its main advantage against the mostly used IDEA and EGNA approach is its backward compatibility with discrete domains, so it is uniquely capable of learning linkage between mixed continuousdiscrete genes. MBOA handles the discretization of continuous parameters as an integral part of the learning process, which outperforms the histogrambased
The Factorized Distribution Algorithm for Additively Decomposed Functions
, 1999
"... FDA  the Factorized Distribution Algorithm  is an evolutionary algorithm that combines mutation and recombination by using a distribution. First the distribution is estimated from a set of selected points. It is then used to generate new points for the next generation. In general a distribution de ..."
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Cited by 22 (1 self)
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FDA  the Factorized Distribution Algorithm  is an evolutionary algorithm that combines mutation and recombination by using a distribution. First the distribution is estimated from a set of selected points. It is then used to generate new points for the next generation. In general a distribution defined for n binary variables has 2 n parameters. Therefore it is too expensive to compute. For additively decomposed discrete functions (ADFs) there exists an algorithm that factors the distribution into conditional and marginal distributions, each of which can be computed in polynomial time. The scaling of FDA is investigated theoretically and numerically. The scaling depends on the ADF structure and the specific assignment of function values. Difficult functions on a chain or a tree structure are optimized in about O(n p n) function evaluations. More standard genetic algorithms are not able to optimize these functions. FDA is not restricted to exact factorizations. It also works for approximate factorizations. Keywords  evolutionary algorithms, graphical models, factorization of distributions, Boltzmann selection 1
Combinatorial optimization by learning and simulation of Bayesian networks
 in Proceedings of the Sixteenth Conference on Uncertainty in Artificial Intelligence
, 2000
"... This paper shows how the Bayesian network paradigm can be used in order to solve combinatorial optimization problems. To do it some methods of structure learning from data and simulation of Bayesian networks are inserted inside Estimation of Distribution Algorithms (EDA). EDA are a new tool for evol ..."
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Cited by 21 (10 self)
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This paper shows how the Bayesian network paradigm can be used in order to solve combinatorial optimization problems. To do it some methods of structure learning from data and simulation of Bayesian networks are inserted inside Estimation of Distribution Algorithms (EDA). EDA are a new tool for evolutionary computation in which populations of individuals are created by estimation and simulation of the joint probability distribution of the selected individuals. We propose new approaches to EDA for combinatorial optimization based on the theory of probabilistic graphical models. Experimental results are also presented.
Gene Expression and Fast Construction of Distributed Evolutionary Representation
 Evolutionary Computation
, 2001
"... The gene expression process in nature produces different proteins in different cells from different portions of the DNA. Since proteins control almost every important activity in a living organism, at an abstract level, gene expression can be viewed as a process that evaluates the merit or "fitness" ..."
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Cited by 20 (0 self)
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The gene expression process in nature produces different proteins in different cells from different portions of the DNA. Since proteins control almost every important activity in a living organism, at an abstract level, gene expression can be viewed as a process that evaluates the merit or "fitness" of the DNA. This distributed evaluation of the DNA would not be possible without a decomposed representation of the fitness function defined over the DNAs. This paper argues that, unless the living body was provided with such a representation, we have every reason to believe that it must have an efficient mechanism to construct this distributed representation. This paper demonstrates polynomialtime computability of such a representation by proposing a class of efficient algorithms. The main contribution of this paper is twofold. On the algorithmic side, it offers a way to scale up evolutionary search by detecting the underlying structure of the search space. On the biological side, it proves that the distributed representation of the evolutionary fitness function in gene expression can be computed in polynomialtime.