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52
On the adaptive value of some mate selection strategies
 Acta Biotheoretica
, 1999
"... mating Running head: mate selection and evolution ..."
ON INTERPRETING CHAITIN’S INCOMPLETENESS THEOREM
, 1998
"... The aim of this paper is to comprehensively question the validity of the standard way of interpreting Chaitin’s famous incompleteness theorem, which says that for every formalized theory of arithmetic there is a finite constant c such that the theory in question cannot prove any particular number ..."
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The aim of this paper is to comprehensively question the validity of the standard way of interpreting Chaitin’s famous incompleteness theorem, which says that for every formalized theory of arithmetic there is a finite constant c such that the theory in question cannot prove any particular number to have Kolmogorov complexity larger than c. The received interpretation of theorem claims that the limiting constant is determined by the complexity of the theory itself, which is assumed to be good measure of the strength of the theory. I exhibit certain strong counterexamples and establish conclusively that the received view is false. Moreover, I show that the limiting constants provided by the theorem do not in any way reflect the power of formalized theories, but that the values of these constants are actually determined by the chosen coding of Turing machines, and are thus quite accidental.
On the Relative Importance of HaploDiploidy, Assortative Mating and Social Synergy on the Evolutionary Emergence of Social Behavior
 Acta Biotheoretica 2001
"... ABSTRACT. Advances in multiagent simulation techniques make it possible to study more realistic dynamics of complex systems and allow evolutionary theories to be tested. Here I use simulations to asses the relative importance of reproductive systems (haplodiploidy vs. diploidy), mate selection (ass ..."
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ABSTRACT. Advances in multiagent simulation techniques make it possible to study more realistic dynamics of complex systems and allow evolutionary theories to be tested. Here I use simulations to asses the relative importance of reproductive systems (haplodiploidy vs. diploidy), mate selection (assortative mating vs. random mating) and social economics (payoff matrices of evolutionary games) in the evolutionary dynamics leading to the emergence of social cooperation in the provision of parental care. The simulations confirm that haplodiploid organisms and organisms mating assortatively have a higher probability for fixing alleles and require less favorable conditions for their fixation, than diploids or organisms mating randomly. The simulations showed that social behavior was most likely to emerge a) when the cost for parental investment was much lower than the benefits to the offspring, b) when cooperation improved synergistically the fitness of offspring compared to the corresponding egoistic behavior and c) when alleles coding for altruistic or social behavior could be rapidly fixed in the population, thanks to mechanisms such as haplodiploidy and/or assortative mating. Cooperative social behavior always appeared if sociality conferred much higher fitness gains compared to non cooperative alternatives suggesting that the most important factors for the
Sex, mate selection and evolution
 Eds.) Lecture Notes in Computer Science 1447: Evolutionary Programming VII
, 1998
"... Abstract: Simulations of the evolution of populations of diploid organisms showed that mate selection strategies which selected for “good genes ” and strategies based on assortative mating, confer a much higher average fitness and higher evolutionary stability to populations than random mating. This ..."
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Abstract: Simulations of the evolution of populations of diploid organisms showed that mate selection strategies which selected for “good genes ” and strategies based on assortative mating, confer a much higher average fitness and higher evolutionary stability to populations than random mating. This advantage was more conspicuous the more genes per organism were simulated and the more genes were involved in the phenotype screened for mate selection. The results suggest that the evolutionary advantage of mate selection becomes evident only when the simultaneous adaptation of several genes are simulated. A cautionary lesson from the model is that mating is not likely to be random in nature and that mate selection may direct evolution by accelerating the exposure to natural selection of relevant traits. That is, models assuming random mating may not reflect what is happening in nature as sexual reproduction is probably associated with mate or gamete selection in most living organisms.
Computers, Reasoning and Mathematical Practice
"... ion in itself is not the goal: for Whitehead [117]"it is the large generalisation, limited by a happy particularity, which is the fruitful conception." As an example consider the theorem in ring theory, which states that if R is a ring, f(x) is a polynomial over R and f(r) = 0 for every e ..."
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ion in itself is not the goal: for Whitehead [117]"it is the large generalisation, limited by a happy particularity, which is the fruitful conception." As an example consider the theorem in ring theory, which states that if R is a ring, f(x) is a polynomial over R and f(r) = 0 for every element of r of R then R is commutative. Special cases of this, for example f(x) is x 2 \Gamma x or x 3 \Gamma x, can be given a first order proof in a few lines of symbol manipulation. The usual proof of the general result [20] (which takes a semester's postgraduate course to develop from scratch) is a corollary of other results: we prove that rings satisfying the condition are semisimple artinian, apply a theorem which shows that all such rings are matrix rings over division rings, and eventually obtain the result by showing that all finite division rings are fields, and hence commutative. This displays von Neumann's architectural qualities: it is "deep" in a way in which the symbol manipulati...
An entropy measure of uncertainty in vote choice.” Electoral Studies 24(3):371–386
, 2005
"... We examine voters ’ uncertainty as they assess candidates ’ policy positions in the 1994 congressional election and test the hypothesis that the Contract with America reduced voter uncertainty about the issue positions of Republican House candidates. This is done with an aggregate evaluation of issu ..."
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We examine voters ’ uncertainty as they assess candidates ’ policy positions in the 1994 congressional election and test the hypothesis that the Contract with America reduced voter uncertainty about the issue positions of Republican House candidates. This is done with an aggregate evaluation of issue uncertainty and corresponding vote choice where the uncertainty parameterization is derived from an entropy calculation on a set of salient election issues. The primary advantage is that it requires very few assumptions about the nature of the data. The entropic model suggests that voters used the written and explicit Republican agenda as a means of reducing issue uncertainty without substantially increasing time spent evaluating candidate positions.
ninety plus thirty years of nonlinear dynamics: Less is more and more is different
 International Journal of Bifurcation and Chaos
, 2005
"... I review the early (1885–1975) and more recent history of dynamical systems theory, identifying key principles and themes, including those of dimension reduction, normal form transformation and unfolding of degenerate cases. I end by briefly noting recent extensions and applications in nonlinear flu ..."
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I review the early (1885–1975) and more recent history of dynamical systems theory, identifying key principles and themes, including those of dimension reduction, normal form transformation and unfolding of degenerate cases. I end by briefly noting recent extensions and applications in nonlinear fluid and solid mechanics, with a nod toward mathematical biology. I argue throughout that this essentially mathematical theory was largely motivated by nonlinear scientific problems, and that after a long gestation it is propagating throughout the sciences and technology.
Research Agenda for Integrated Landscape Modeling
, 2007
"... Authors Reliable predictions of how changing climate and disturbance regimes will affect forest ecosystems are crucial for effective forest management. Current fire and climate research in forest ecosystem and community ecology offers data and methods that can inform such predictions. However, resea ..."
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Authors Reliable predictions of how changing climate and disturbance regimes will affect forest ecosystems are crucial for effective forest management. Current fire and climate research in forest ecosystem and community ecology offers data and methods that can inform such predictions. However, research in these fields occurs at different scales, with disparate goals, methods, and context. Often results are not readily comparable among studies and defy integration. We discuss the strengths and weaknesses of three modeling paradigms: empirical gradient models, mechanistic ecosystem models, and stochastic landscape disturbance models. We then propose a synthetic approach to multiscale analysis of the effects of climatic change and disturbance on forest ecosystems. Empirical gradient models provide an anchor and spatial template for standlevel forest ecosystem models by quantifying key parameters for individual species and accounting for broadscale geographic variation among them. Gradient imputation transfers predictions of finescale forest composition and structure across geographic space. Mechanistic ecosystem dynamic models predict the responses of biological variables to specific environmental drivers and facilitate understanding of temporal dynamics and disequilibrium. Stochastic landscape dynamics models predict frequency, extent, and severity of broadscale disturbance. A robust linkage of these three modeling paradigms will facilitate prediction of the effects of altered fire and other disturbance regimes on forest ecosystems at multiple scales and in the context of climatic variability and change.
1978]: ‘Mathematics
 Explanation, and Scientific Knowledge’, Nous
"... Many great physicists have expressed amazement that mathematics should be applicable to physics.1 Eugene Wigner says, 'The miracle of the appropriateness of the language of mathematics for the formulation of the laws of physics is a wonderful gift which we neither understand nor deserve.'2 ..."
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Many great physicists have expressed amazement that mathematics should be applicable to physics.1 Eugene Wigner says, 'The miracle of the appropriateness of the language of mathematics for the formulation of the laws of physics is a wonderful gift which we neither understand nor deserve.'2 Hertz expressed similar thoughts: One cannot escape the feeling that these mathematical formulae have an independent existence and intelligence of their own, that they are wiser than we are, wiser even than their discoverers, that we get more out of them than was originally put into them.3 Steven Weinberg: It is positively spooky how the physicist finds the mathematician has been there before him or her.4 Richard Feynman: I find it quite amazing that it is possible to predict what will happen by mathematics, which is simply following rules which really have nothing to do with the original thing.5
A (2005) The problem of the attractor: A singular generality between sciences. Social Theory 10: 45–65
"... ABSTRACTIONS DERIVED from complexity science have rapidlymoved across different domains of knowledge and expertise over thelast two decades. Beginning with the strange attractors of chaos theory in the 1980s, concepts such as sensitive dependence on initial conditions, bifurcation point, nonlinear ..."
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ABSTRACTIONS DERIVED from complexity science have rapidlymoved across different domains of knowledge and expertise over thelast two decades. Beginning with the strange attractors of chaos theory in the 1980s, concepts such as sensitive dependence on initial conditions, bifurcation point, nonlinear system, farfromequilibrium, phase transition, selforganizing criticality, powerlaw, fitness landscape and fractal geometry attracted much media and academic attention as they circulated between physics, mathematics, the earth sciences, ecology, evolutionary biology, physiology, economics, psychology and, tentatively, sociology and critical theory. This article investigates that movement with two questions in mind. The first concerns the significance of complexity theory as a scientificmedia event in its own right: what kind of experimental practice and modes of knowledge production gave rise to concepts that so quickly transit from laboratories and simulations to popular science and culture? Following on from this, the other question concerns the import of complex objects for social and cultural theory: do these objects principally supply new metaphors for theories of the social or are there historically new modalities of knowledge at stake? These two questions (the specifics of complexity as a technicalscientific practice; its relevance for contemporary social theorybuilding) are interlaced. Social sciences and humanities are partly constituted in relation to science and technology. Any shift in the modes of knowing and acting associated with science and technology not only warrants social or cultural analysis, it modifies the ground on which