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The unbearable automaticity of being
 American Psychologist
, 1999
"... What was noted by E. J. hanger (1978) remains true today: that much of contemporary psychological research is based on the assumption that people are consciously and systematically processing incoming information in order to construe and interpret their world and to plan and engage in courses of act ..."
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Cited by 362 (11 self)
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What was noted by E. J. hanger (1978) remains true today: that much of contemporary psychological research is based on the assumption that people are consciously and systematically processing incoming information in order to construe and interpret their world and to plan and engage in courses of action. As did E. J. hanger, the authors question this assumption. First, they review evidence that the ability to exercise such conscious, intentional control is actually quite limited, so that most of momenttomoment psychological life must occur through nonconscious means if it is to occur at all. The authors then describe the different possible mechanisms that produce automatic, environmental control over these various phenomena and review evidence establishing both the existence of these mechanisms as well as their consequences for judgments, emotions, and
Think different: The merits of unconscious thought in preference development and decision making
 Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
, 2004
"... The role of unconscious and conscious thought in decision making was investigated in 5 experiments. Because of the low processing capacity of consciousness, conscious thought was hypothesized to be maladaptive when making complex decisions. Conversely, unconscious thought was expected to be highly e ..."
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Cited by 70 (5 self)
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The role of unconscious and conscious thought in decision making was investigated in 5 experiments. Because of the low processing capacity of consciousness, conscious thought was hypothesized to be maladaptive when making complex decisions. Conversely, unconscious thought was expected to be highly effective. In Experiments 1–3, participants were presented with a complex decision problem in which they had to choose between various alternatives, each with multiple attributes. Some participants had to make a decision immediately after being presented with the options. In the conscious thought condition, participants could think about the decision for a few minutes. In the unconscious thought condition, participants were distracted for a few minutes and then indicated their decision. Throughout the experiments, unconscious thinkers made the best decisions. Additional evidence obtained in Experiments 4 and 5 suggests that unconscious thought leads to clearer, more polarized, and more integrated representations in memory. When making a decision of minor importance, I have always found it advantageous to consider all the pros and cons. In vital matters however... the decision should come from the unconscious, from somewhere within ourselves.
Productive Parallel Programming: The PCN Approach
 Scientific Programming
, 1992
"... We describe the PCN programming system, focusing on those features designed to improve the productivity of scientists and engineers using parallel supercomputers. These features include a simple notation for the concise specification of concurrent algorithms, the ability to incorporate existing Fort ..."
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Cited by 42 (6 self)
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We describe the PCN programming system, focusing on those features designed to improve the productivity of scientists and engineers using parallel supercomputers. These features include a simple notation for the concise specification of concurrent algorithms, the ability to incorporate existing Fortran and C code into parallel applications, facilities for reusing parallel program components, a portable toolkit that allows applications to be developed on a workstation or small parallel computer and run unchanged on supercomputers, and integrated debugging and performance analysis tools. We survey representative scientific applications and identify problem classes for which PCN has proved particularly useful. Keywords: PCN, program composition, parallel programming, reuse, templates. 1 Introduction After many years as academic curiosities, computers combining hundreds or thousands of powerful microprocessors have overtaken vector processors and become essential tools for scientists and...
Formal Verification of Probabilistic Algorithms
, 2002
"... This thesis shows how probabilistic algorithms can be formally verified using a mechanical theorem prover. We begin with an extensive foundational development of probability, creating a higherorder logic formalization of mathematical measure theory. This allows the definition of the probability spac ..."
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Cited by 40 (3 self)
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This thesis shows how probabilistic algorithms can be formally verified using a mechanical theorem prover. We begin with an extensive foundational development of probability, creating a higherorder logic formalization of mathematical measure theory. This allows the definition of the probability space we use to model a random bit generator, which informally is a stream of coinflips, or technically an infinite sequence of IID Bernoulli ( 1) random variables. 2 Probabilistic programs are modelled using the statetransformer monad familiar from functional programming, where the random bit generator is passed around in the computation. Functions remove random bits from the generator to perform their calculation, and then pass back the changed random bit generator with the result. Our probability space modelling the random bit generator allows us to give precise probabilistic specifications of such programs, and then verify them in the theorem prover. We also develop technical support designed to expedite verification: probabilistic quantifiers; a compositional property subsuming measurability and independence; a probabilistic while loop together with a formal concept of termination with probability 1. We also introduce a technique for reducing properties of a probabilistic while loop to properties of programs that are guaranteed to terminate: these can then be established using induction and standard methods of program correctness. We demonstrate the formal framework with some example probabilistic programs: sampling algorithms for four probability distributions; some optimal procedures for generating dice rolls from coin flips; the symmetric simple random walk. In addition, we verify the MillerRabin primality test, a wellknown and commercially used probabilistic algorithm. Our fundamental perspective allows us to define a version with strong properties, which we can execute in the logic to prove compositeness of numbers. 3 4
Conditionedsafe Ceremonies and a User Study of an Application to Web Authentication
"... We introduce the notion of a conditionedsafe ceremony. A “ceremony ” is similar to the conventional notion of a protocol, except that a ceremony explicitly includes human participants. Our formulation of a conditionedsafe ceremony draws on several ideas and lessons learned from the human factors a ..."
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Cited by 8 (1 self)
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We introduce the notion of a conditionedsafe ceremony. A “ceremony ” is similar to the conventional notion of a protocol, except that a ceremony explicitly includes human participants. Our formulation of a conditionedsafe ceremony draws on several ideas and lessons learned from the human factors and human reliability community: forcing functions, defense in depth, and the use of human tendencies, such as rulebased decision making. We propose design principles for building conditionedsafe ceremonies and apply these principles to develop a registration ceremony for machine authentication based on email. We evaluated our email registration ceremony with a user study of 200 participants. We designed our study to be as ecologically valid as possible: we employed deception, did not use a laboratory environment, and attempted to create an experience of risk. We simulated attacks against the users and found that email registration was significantly more secure than challenge question based registration. We also found evidence that conditioning helped email registration users resist attacks, but contributed towards making challenge question users more vulnerable. 1
Metamath: A Computer Language for Pure Mathematics
, 1997
"... This book has been released into the Public Domain by Norman Megill on ..."
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Cited by 7 (0 self)
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This book has been released into the Public Domain by Norman Megill on
The self and social perception: Three kinds of questions in social cognitive neuroscience
 The Cognitive Neuroscience of Social Behaviour
, 2005
"... ..."
Is political cognition like riding a bicycle? How cognitive neuroscience can inform research on political thinking
 Political Psychology
, 2003
"... Our understanding of political phenomena, including political attitudes and sophistication, can be enriched by incorporating the theories and tools of cognitive neuroscience— in particular, the cognitive neuroscience of nonconscious habitual cognition (akin to bicycle riding). From this perspective, ..."
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Cited by 4 (0 self)
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Our understanding of political phenomena, including political attitudes and sophistication, can be enriched by incorporating the theories and tools of cognitive neuroscience— in particular, the cognitive neuroscience of nonconscious habitual cognition (akin to bicycle riding). From this perspective, different types of informational “building blocks” can be construed from which different types of political attitudes may arise. A reflectionreflexion model is presented that describes how these blocks combine to produce a given political attitude as a function of goals, primes, expertise, and inherent conflict in considerations relevant to the attitude. The ways in which neuroimaging methods can be used to test hypotheses of political cognition are reviewed. KEY WORDS: social cognitive neuroscience, automaticity, habit, political sophistication Scholars since Plato and Aristotle have asked themselves many questions about the intriguingly political nature of the human mind. It is unlikely, however, that many have asked themselves whether political thinking is like riding a bicycle. This isn’t altogether surprising, of course, given that casting a vote and pedaling down the road seem like very different behaviors. Beneath this surface of dissimilarity, however, political thinking and bike riding may frequently depend on flexing a common set of mental “muscles ” that support the formation and expression of habits across a variety of domains (Lieberman, 2000). Political thinking and bicycle riding may seem to be very dissimilar behaviors. But in some circumstances, they may both depend on a common set of mental “muscles ” that support the formation and expression of habits across a variety of domains
A Diagrammatic Formal System for Euclidean Geometry
, 2001
"... It has long been commonly assumed that geometric diagrams can only be used as aids to human intuition and cannot be used in rigorous proofs of theorems of Euclidean geometry. This work gives a formal system FG whose basic syntactic objects are geometric diagrams and which is strong enough to formali ..."
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It has long been commonly assumed that geometric diagrams can only be used as aids to human intuition and cannot be used in rigorous proofs of theorems of Euclidean geometry. This work gives a formal system FG whose basic syntactic objects are geometric diagrams and which is strong enough to formalize most if not all of what is contained in the first several books of Euclid’s Elements. Thisformal system is much more natural than other formalizations of geometry have been. Most correct informal geometric proofs using diagrams can be translated fairly easily into this system, and formal proofs in this system are not significantly harder to understand than the corresponding informal proofs. It has also been adapted into a computer system called CDEG (Computerized Diagrammatic Euclidean Geometry) for giving formal geometric proofs using diagrams. The formal system FG is used here to prove metamathematical and complexity theoretic results about the logical structure of Euclidean geometry and the uses of diagrams in geometry.