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90
Internet paradox: A social technology that reduces social involvement and psychological wellbeing
 American Psychologist
, 1998
"... The Internet could change the lives of average citizens as much as did the telephone in the early part of the 20th century and television in the 1950s and 1960s. Researchers and social critics are debating whether the Internet is improving or harming participation in community life and social relati ..."
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Cited by 144 (16 self)
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The Internet could change the lives of average citizens as much as did the telephone in the early part of the 20th century and television in the 1950s and 1960s. Researchers and social critics are debating whether the Internet is improving or harming participation in community life and social relationships. This research examined the social and psychological impact of the lnternet on 169 people in 73 households during their first i to 2 years online. We used longitudinal data to examine the effects of the Internet on social involvement and psychological wellbeing. In this sample, the Internet was used extensively for communication. Nonetheless, greater use of the Internet was associated with declines in participants'communication with family members in the household, declines in the size of their social circle, and increases in their depression and loneliness. These findings have implications for research, for public policy, and for the design of technology. F ifteen years ago, computers were mainly the province
Bidirectional Reasoning in Decision Making by Constraint Satisfaction
 Journal of Experimental Psychology: General
, 1999
"... Recent constraintsatisfaction models of explanation, analogy, and decision making claim that these processes are influenced by bidirectional constraints that promote coherence. College students were asked to reach a verdict in a complex legal case involving multiple conflicting arguments, including ..."
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Cited by 56 (4 self)
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Recent constraintsatisfaction models of explanation, analogy, and decision making claim that these processes are influenced by bidirectional constraints that promote coherence. College students were asked to reach a verdict in a complex legal case involving multiple conflicting arguments, including alternative analogies to the target case. Participants rated agreement with the individual arguments both in isolation before seeing the case, and again after reaching a verdict. Assessments of the individual arguments (including the competing analogies) shifted so as to cohere with their emerging verdict. Information about the character of the defendant in the initial case triggered a cascade of "spreading coherence", influencing decisions made about a subsequent case involving very different legal issues. Participants ' memory for their initial positions also shifted so as to cohere with their final positions. The coherence shifts were simulated by a constraint satisfaction model. The results demonstrate that an alogical process of constraint satisfaction can transform highly ambiguous inputs into coherent decisions. Bidirectional Reasoning 3 One of the most deeprooted assumptions about human reasoning is that the flow of
A Scaled Difference Chisquare Test Statistic for Moment Structure Analysis
"... A family of scaling corrections aimed to improve the chisquare approximation of goodnessoffit test statistics in small samples, large models, and nonnormal data was proposed in Satorra and Bentler (1994). For structural equations models, SatorraBentler's (SB) scaling corrections are available in ..."
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Cited by 45 (0 self)
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A family of scaling corrections aimed to improve the chisquare approximation of goodnessoffit test statistics in small samples, large models, and nonnormal data was proposed in Satorra and Bentler (1994). For structural equations models, SatorraBentler's (SB) scaling corrections are available in standard computer software. Often, however, the interest is not on the overall fit of a model, but on a test of the restrictions that a null model say M 0 implies on a less restricted one M 1 .IfT 0 and T 1 denote the goodnessoffit test statistics associated to M 0 and M 1 , respectively, then typically the difference T d = T 0 ; T 1 is used as a chisquare test statistic with degrees of freedom equal to the difference on the number of independent parameters estimated under the models M 0 and M 1 . As in the case of the goodnessoffit test, it is of interest to scale the statistic T d in order to improveitschisquare approximation in realistic, i.e., nonasymptotic and nonn...
The robustness of test statistics to nonnormality and specification error in confirmatory factor analysis
 Psychological Methods
, 1996
"... Monte Carlo computer simulations were used to investigate the performance of three X 2 test statistics in confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Normal theory maximum likelihood)~2 (ML), Browne's asymptotic distribution free X 2 (ADF), and the SatorraBentler rescaled X 2 (SB) were examined under varyi ..."
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Cited by 42 (1 self)
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Monte Carlo computer simulations were used to investigate the performance of three X 2 test statistics in confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Normal theory maximum likelihood)~2 (ML), Browne's asymptotic distribution free X 2 (ADF), and the SatorraBentler rescaled X 2 (SB) were examined under varying conditions of sample size, model specification, and multivariate distribution. For properly specified models, ML and SB showed no evidence of bias under normal distributions across all sample sizes, whereas ADF was biased at all but the largest sample sizes. ML was increasingly overestimated with increasing nonnormality, but both SB (at all sample sizes) and ADF (only at large sample sizes) showed no evidence of bias. For misspecified models, ML was again inflated with increasing nonnormality, but both SB and ADF were underestimated with increasing nonnormality. It appears that the power of the SB and ADF test statistics to detect a model misspecification is attenuated given nonnormally distributed data. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) has become an increasingly popular method of investigating the structure of data sets in psychology. In contrast to traditional exploratory factor analysis that does not place strong a priori restrictions on the structure of the model being tested, CFA requires the investigator to specify both the number of factors
Principles and practice in reporting structural equation analyses
 Psychological Methods
, 2002
"... Principles for reporting analyses using structural equation modeling are reviewed, with the goal of supplying readers with complete and accurate information. It is recommended that every report give a detailed justification of the model used, along with plausible alternatives and an account of ident ..."
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Cited by 29 (0 self)
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Principles for reporting analyses using structural equation modeling are reviewed, with the goal of supplying readers with complete and accurate information. It is recommended that every report give a detailed justification of the model used, along with plausible alternatives and an account of identifiability. Nonnormality and missing data problems should also be addressed. A complete set of parameters and their standard errors is desirable, and it will often be convenient to supply the correlation matrix and discrepancies, as well as goodnessoffit indices, so that readers can exercise independent critical judgment. A survey of fairly representative studies compares recent practice with the principles of reporting recommended here. Structural equation modeling (SEM), also known as path analysis with latent variables, is now a regularly used method for representing dependency (arguably “causal”) relations in multivariate data in the behavioral and social sciences. Following the seminal work of Jöreskog (1973), a number of models for linear structural relations have been developed
The grateful disposition: A conceptual and empirical topography
 Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
, 2002
"... In four studies, the authors examined the correlates of the disposition toward gratitude. Study 1 revealed that selfratings and observer ratings of the grateful disposition are associated with positive affect and wellbeing, prosocial behaviors and traits, and religiousness/spirituality. Study 2 re ..."
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Cited by 28 (3 self)
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In four studies, the authors examined the correlates of the disposition toward gratitude. Study 1 revealed that selfratings and observer ratings of the grateful disposition are associated with positive affect and wellbeing, prosocial behaviors and traits, and religiousness/spirituality. Study 2 replicated these findings in a large nonstudent sample. Study 3 yielded similar results to Studies 1 and 2 and provided evidence that gratitude is negatively associated with envy and materialistic attitudes. Study 4 yielded evidence that these associations persist after controlling for Extraversion/positive affectivity, Neuroticism/negative affectivity, and Agreeableness. The development of the Gratitude Questionnaire, a unidimensional measure with good psychometric properties, is also described. Gratitude, as it were, is the moral memory of mankind. —Georg Simmel The gratitude of most men is but a secret desire of receiving more benefits. —La Rochefoucauld Despite centuries of reflection, scholars in the humanities continue to debate whether the disposition to be grateful is a trait worthy of admiration or of contempt. In one camp, philosophers such as Seneca, Adam Smith, and Georg Simmel have praised the value of a grateful disposition for individual and social wellbeing. In another, figures such as Aristotle, Epicurus, and La Rochefoucauld have concluded that manifestations of gratitude are no more than thin veils over human beings ’ selfinterest, or messy emotional ties that make people unnecessarily beholden to their benefactors
Investigating Spearman’s hypothesis by means of multigroup confirmatory factor analysis
 Multivariate Behavioral Research
, 2000
"... Differences between blacks and whites on cognitive ability tests have been attributed to a fundamental difference between these groups in general intelligence (or g, as it is denoted). The hypothesized difference in g gives rise to Spearman’s hypothesis, which states that the differences in the mean ..."
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Cited by 17 (6 self)
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Differences between blacks and whites on cognitive ability tests have been attributed to a fundamental difference between these groups in general intelligence (or g, as it is denoted). The hypothesized difference in g gives rise to Spearman’s hypothesis, which states that the differences in the means of the tests are related to the tests ’ factor loadings on g. Jensen has investigated this hypothesis by correlating differences in means and tests ’ g loadings. The aim of the present article is to investigate BW differences using multigroup confirmatory factor analysis. The advantages of multigroup confirmatory factor analysis over Jensen’s test of Spearman’s hypothesis are discussed. A published data set is analyzed. Strict factorial invariance is tested and judged to be tenable. Various models are tested, which do and do not incorporate g. It is observed that it is difficult to distinguish between several hypotheses, including and excluding g, concerning group differences. The inability to distinguish between competing models using multigroup confirmatory factor analysis makes it difficult to draw clear conclusions about the exact nature of blackwhite differences in cognitive abilities. The implications of the results for Jensen’s test of Spearman’s hypothesis are discussed.
Investigations of temperament at three to seven years: The children’s behavior questionnaire
, 2001
"... This article reviews evidence on the reliability and validity of the Children’s Behavior Questionnaire (CBQ), and presents CBQ data on the structure of temperament in childhood. The CBQ is a caregiver report measure designed to provide a detailed assessment of temperament in children 3 to 7 years of ..."
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Cited by 14 (0 self)
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This article reviews evidence on the reliability and validity of the Children’s Behavior Questionnaire (CBQ), and presents CBQ data on the structure of temperament in childhood. The CBQ is a caregiver report measure designed to provide a detailed assessment of temperament in children 3 to 7 years of age. Individual differences
University students’ perceptions of the learning environment and academic outcomes: implications for theory and practice
 Studies in Higher Education
, 2002
"... ABSTRACT The relationship between university students ’ perceptions of their academic environment, their approaches to study, and academic outcomes was investigated at both university and faculty levels. The responses of a large, crossdisciplinary sample of undergraduate students were analysed usin ..."
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Cited by 13 (0 self)
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ABSTRACT The relationship between university students ’ perceptions of their academic environment, their approaches to study, and academic outcomes was investigated at both university and faculty levels. The responses of a large, crossdisciplinary sample of undergraduate students were analysed using higher order path and regression analyses, and the results con � rmed students ’ perceptions as in � uencing both ‘hard ’ (academic achievement) and ‘soft ’ (satisfaction, development of key skills) learning outcomes, both directly and mediated through their approaches to study. Perceptions of heavy workload and inappropriate assessment in � uenced students towards surface, and perceptions of good teaching towards deep, approaches to study. Students ’ perceptions of their current learning environment were a stronger predictor of learning outcomes at university than prior achievement at school. Protocols are proposed to guide more � negrained analysis of students ’ perceptions. This article seeks to make both a theoretical and practical contribution to the literature regarding the nature and impact of university students ’ perceptions of an academic environment on their learning approaches and outcomes. We will argue that the clarity and generalisability of previous research investigating the association between presage factors in a university learning environment and students ’ approaches to learning in that environment
Latent variable interaction and quadratic effect estimation: a twostep technique using structural equation.” (http://www.wright.edu/robert.ping/) Updated from Ping R
 Psychological Bulletin
, 1996
"... The author proposes an alternative estimation technique for latent variable interactions and quadraties. Available techniques for specifying these variables in structural equation models require adding variables or constraint equations that can produce specification tedium and errors or estimation d ..."
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Cited by 11 (0 self)
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The author proposes an alternative estimation technique for latent variable interactions and quadraties. Available techniques for specifying these variables in structural equation models require adding variables or constraint equations that can produce specification tedium and errors or estimation difficulties. The proposed technique avoids these difficulties and may be useful for EQS, LISREL 7, and LISREL 8 users. First, measurement parameters for indicator Ioadings and errors of linear latent variables are estimated in a measurement model that excludes the interaction and quadratic variables. Next, these estimates are used to calculate values for the indicator loadings and error variances ofthe interaction and quadratic latent variables. Then, these calculated values are specified as constants in the structural model containing the interaction and quadratic variables. Interaction and quadratic effects are routinely reported for categorical independent variables (i.e., in analysis of variance) frequently to aid in the interpretation of significant main effects. However, interaction and quadratic effects are less frequently reported for continuous independent variables. Researchers have called for the inclusion of interaction and quadratic variables in models with continuous independent