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72
ANCESTRAL GRAPH MARKOV MODELS
, 2002
"... This paper introduces a class of graphical independence models that is closed under marginalization and conditioning but that contains all DAG independence models. This class of graphs, called maximal ancestral graphs, has two attractive features: there is at most one edge between each pair of verti ..."
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Cited by 121 (22 self)
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This paper introduces a class of graphical independence models that is closed under marginalization and conditioning but that contains all DAG independence models. This class of graphs, called maximal ancestral graphs, has two attractive features: there is at most one edge between each pair of vertices; every missing edge corresponds to an independence relation. These features lead to a simple parameterization of the corresponding set of distributions in the Gaussian case.
Stratified exponential families: Graphical models and model selection
 ANNALS OF STATISTICS
, 2001
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Chain Graph Models and their Causal Interpretations
 B
, 2001
"... Chain graphs are a natural generalization of directed acyclic graphs (DAGs) and undirected graphs. However, the apparent simplicity of chain graphs belies the subtlety of the conditional independence hypotheses that they represent. There are a number of simple and apparently plausible, but ultim ..."
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Cited by 68 (7 self)
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Chain graphs are a natural generalization of directed acyclic graphs (DAGs) and undirected graphs. However, the apparent simplicity of chain graphs belies the subtlety of the conditional independence hypotheses that they represent. There are a number of simple and apparently plausible, but ultimately fallacious interpretations of chain graphs that are often invoked, implicitly or explicitly. These interpretations also lead to awed methods for applying background knowledge to model selection. We present a valid interpretation by showing how the distribution corresponding to a chain graph may be generated as the equilibrium distribution of dynamic models with feedback. These dynamic interpretations lead to a simple theory of intervention, extending the theory developed for DAGs. Finally, we contrast chain graph models under this interpretation with simultaneous equation models which have traditionally been used to model feedback in econometrics. Keywords: Causal model; cha...
Discrete chain graph models
 Bernoulli
, 2009
"... The statistical literature discusses different types of Markov properties for chain graphs that lead to four possible classes of chain graph Markov models. The different models are rather well understood when the observations are continuous and multivariate normal, and it is also known that one mode ..."
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Cited by 37 (2 self)
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The statistical literature discusses different types of Markov properties for chain graphs that lead to four possible classes of chain graph Markov models. The different models are rather well understood when the observations are continuous and multivariate normal, and it is also known that one model class, referred to as models of LWF (Lauritzen–Wermuth–Frydenberg) or block concentration type, yields discrete models for categorical data that are smooth. This paper considers the structural properties of the discrete models based on the three alternative Markov properties. It is shown by example that two of the alternative Markov properties can lead to nonsmooth models. The remaining model class, which can be viewed as a discrete version of multivariate regressions, is proven to comprise only smooth models. The proof employs a simple change of coordinates that also reveals that the model’s likelihood function is unimodal if the chain components of the graph are complete sets.
A SINful approach to Gaussian graphical model selection
 Journal of Statistical Planning and Inference
"... Abstract. Multivariate Gaussian graphical models are defined in terms of Markov properties, i.e., conditional independences associated with the underlying graph. Thus, model selection can be performed by testing these conditional independences, which are equivalent to specified zeroes among certain ..."
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Cited by 36 (5 self)
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Abstract. Multivariate Gaussian graphical models are defined in terms of Markov properties, i.e., conditional independences associated with the underlying graph. Thus, model selection can be performed by testing these conditional independences, which are equivalent to specified zeroes among certain (partial) correlation coefficients. For concentration graphs, covariance graphs, acyclic directed graphs, and chain graphs (both LWF and AMP), we apply Fisher’s ztransformation, ˇ Sidák’s correlation inequality, and Holm’s stepdown procedure, to simultaneously test the multiple hypotheses obtained from the Markov properties. This leads to a simple method for model selection that controls the overall error rate for incorrect edge inclusion. In practice, we advocate partitioning the simultaneous pvalues into three disjoint sets, a significant set S, an indeterminate set I, and a nonsignificant set N. Then our SIN model selection method selects two graphs, a graph whose edges correspond to the union of S and I, and a more conservative graph whose edges correspond to S only. Prior information about the presence and/or absence of particular edges can be incorporated readily. 1.
Multiple testing and error control in Gaussian graphical model selection
 Statistical Science
"... Abstract. Graphical models provide a framework for exploration of multivariate dependence patterns. The connection between graph and statistical model is made by identifying the vertices of the graph with the observed variables and translating the pattern of edges in the graph into a pattern of cond ..."
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Cited by 30 (4 self)
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Abstract. Graphical models provide a framework for exploration of multivariate dependence patterns. The connection between graph and statistical model is made by identifying the vertices of the graph with the observed variables and translating the pattern of edges in the graph into a pattern of conditional independences that is imposed on the variables ’ joint distribution. Focusing on Gaussian models, we review classical graphical models. For these models the defining conditional independences are equivalent to vanishing of certain (partial) correlation coefficients associated with individual edges that are absent from the graph. Hence, Gaussian graphical model selection can be performed by multiple testing of hypotheses about vanishing (partial) correlation coefficients. We show and exemplify how this approach allows one to perform model selection while controlling error rates for incorrect edge inclusion. Key words and phrases: Acyclic directed graph, Bayesian network, bidirected graph, chain graph, concentration graph, covariance graph, DAG, graphical model, multiple testing, undirected graph. 1.
Multimodality of the likelihood in the bivariate seemingly unrelated regression model
, 2002
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Iterative conditional fitting for Gaussian ancestral graph models
 In M. Chickering and J. Halpern (Eds.), Proceedings of the 20th Conference on Uncertainty in Artificial Intelligence
, 2004
"... Ancestral graph models, introduced by Richardson and Spirtes (2002), generalize both Markov random fields and Bayesian networks to a class of graphs with a global Markov property that is closed under conditioning and marginalization. By design, ancestral graphs encode precisely the conditional indep ..."
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Cited by 25 (6 self)
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Ancestral graph models, introduced by Richardson and Spirtes (2002), generalize both Markov random fields and Bayesian networks to a class of graphs with a global Markov property that is closed under conditioning and marginalization. By design, ancestral graphs encode precisely the conditional independence structures that can arise from Bayesian networks with selection and unobserved (hidden/latent) variables. Thus, ancestral graph models provide a potentially very useful framework for exploratory model selection when unobserved variables might be involved in the datagenerating process but no particular hidden structure can be specified. In this paper, we present the Iterative Conditional Fitting (ICF) algorithm for maximum likelihood estimation in Gaussian ancestral graph models. The name reflects that in each step of the procedure a conditional distribution is estimated, subject to constraints, while a marginal distribution is held fixed. This approach is in duality to the wellknown Iterative Proportional Fitting algorithm, in which marginal distributions are fitted while conditional distributions are held fixed. 1
On Chain Graph Models For Description Of Conditional Independence Structures
 Ann. Statist
, 1998
"... This paper deals with chain graphs (CGs) which allow both directed and undirected edges. This class of graphs, introduced by Lauritzen and Wermuth [15], generalizes both UGs and DAGs. To establish the semantics of CGs one should associate an independency model to every CG. Some steps were already ma ..."
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Cited by 25 (3 self)
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This paper deals with chain graphs (CGs) which allow both directed and undirected edges. This class of graphs, introduced by Lauritzen and Wermuth [15], generalizes both UGs and DAGs. To establish the semantics of CGs one should associate an independency model to every CG. Some steps were already made. Lauritzen and Wermuth [16] intended to use CGs to describe independency models for strictly positive probability distributions and introduced the concept of the chain Markov property which is analogous to the concept of causal input list for DAGs. Lauritzen and Frydenberg [17, 9] generalized the concept of moral graph and introduced a moralization criterion for reading independency statements from a CG. Frydenberg [9] characterized CGs with the same Markov ON CHAIN GRAPH MODELS 3 property (that is producing the same CGmodel) and Andersson, Madigan and Perlman [3] used special CGs to represent uniquely classes of Markov equivalent DAGs. Whittaker [31] in his book gave several examples of the use of CGs, and other recent works also deal with them [6, 20, 23, 30], the most comprehensive account is provided by the book [19]. Several results proved here were already presented (without proof) in our previous conference contribution [5]. An alternative approach to the generalization of UGs and DAGs was started by Cox and Wermuth [7] who introduced a wider class of jointresponse chain graphs which allow also 'dashed' directed and undirected edges in addition to the classic 'solid' directed and undirected edges treated in this paper. Andersson, Madigan and Perlman [1] introduced an alternative Markov property to give an interpretation to those jointresponse CGs which combine dashed directed edges with solid undirected edges (of course, another independency model is associated...
Graphical models and exponential families
 In Proceedings of the 14th Annual Conference on Uncertainty in Arti cial Intelligence (UAI98
, 1998
"... We provide a classification of graphical models according to their representation as subfamilies of exponential families. Undirected graphical models with no hidden variables are linear exponential families (LEFs), directed acyclic graphical models and chain graphs with no hidden variables, includin ..."
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Cited by 23 (1 self)
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We provide a classification of graphical models according to their representation as subfamilies of exponential families. Undirected graphical models with no hidden variables are linear exponential families (LEFs), directed acyclic graphical models and chain graphs with no hidden variables, including Bayesian networks with several families of local distributions, are curved exponential families (CEFs) and graphical models with hidden variables are stratified exponential families (SEFs). An SEF is a finite union of CEFs satisfying a frontier condition. In addition, we illustrate how one can automatically generate independence and nonindependence constraints on the distributions over the observable variables implied by a Bayesian network with hidden variables. The relevance of these results for model selection is examined. 1