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364
Computing the editdistance between unrooted ordered trees
 In Proceedings of the 6th annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA
, 1998
"... Abstract. An ordered tree is a tree in which each node’s incident edges are cyclically ordered; think of the tree as being embedded in the plane. Let A and B be two ordered trees. The edit distance between A and B is the minimum cost of a sequence of operations (contract an edge, uncontract an edge, ..."
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Cited by 81 (0 self)
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Abstract. An ordered tree is a tree in which each node’s incident edges are cyclically ordered; think of the tree as being embedded in the plane. Let A and B be two ordered trees. The edit distance between A and B is the minimum cost of a sequence of operations (contract an edge, uncontract an edge, modify the label of an edge) needed to transform A into B. WegiveanO(n 3 log n) algorithm to compute the edit distance between two ordered trees. 1
Higher rank graph C*algebras
, 2000
"... Building on recent work of Robertson and Steger, we associate a C ∗ –algebra to a combinatorial object which may be thought of as a higher rank graph. This C ∗ –algebra is shown to be isomorphic to that of the associated path groupoid. Various results in this paper give sufficient conditions on the ..."
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Cited by 58 (11 self)
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Building on recent work of Robertson and Steger, we associate a C ∗ –algebra to a combinatorial object which may be thought of as a higher rank graph. This C ∗ –algebra is shown to be isomorphic to that of the associated path groupoid. Various results in this paper give sufficient conditions on the higher rank graph for the associated C ∗ –algebra to be: simple, purely infinite and AF. Results concerning the structure of crossed products by certain natural actions of discrete groups are obtained; a technique for constructing rank 2 graphs from “commuting” rank 1 graphs is given.
Dynamic Generators of Topologically Embedded Graphs
, 2003
"... We provide a data structure for maintaining an embedding of a graph on a surface (represented combinatorially by a permutation of edges around each vertex) and computing generators of the fundamental group of the surface, in amortized time O(logn + logg(loglogg) 3) per update on a surface of genus g ..."
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Cited by 39 (1 self)
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We provide a data structure for maintaining an embedding of a graph on a surface (represented combinatorially by a permutation of edges around each vertex) and computing generators of the fundamental group of the surface, in amortized time O(logn + logg(loglogg) 3) per update on a surface of genus g; we can also test orientability of the surface in the same time, and maintain the minimum and maximum spanning tree of the graph in time O(log n + log 4 g) per update. Our data structure allows edge insertion and deletion as well as the dual operations; these operations may implicitly change the genus of the embedding surface. We apply similar ideas to improve the constant factor in a separator theorem for lowgenus graphs, and to find in linear time a treedecomposition of lowgenus lowdiameter graphs.
Moore graphs and beyond: A survey of the degree/diameter problem
 ELECTRONIC JOURNAL OF COMBINATORICS
, 2013
"... The degree/diameter problem is to determine the largest graphs or digraphs of given maximum degree and given diameter. General upper bounds – called Moore bounds – for the order of such graphs and digraphs are attainable only for certain special graphs and digraphs. Finding better (tighter) upper bo ..."
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Cited by 30 (4 self)
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The degree/diameter problem is to determine the largest graphs or digraphs of given maximum degree and given diameter. General upper bounds – called Moore bounds – for the order of such graphs and digraphs are attainable only for certain special graphs and digraphs. Finding better (tighter) upper bounds for the maximum possible number of vertices, given the other two parameters, and thus attacking the degree/diameter problem ‘from above’, remains a largely unexplored area. Constructions producing large graphs and digraphs of given degree and diameter represent a way of attacking the degree/diameter problem ‘from below’. This survey aims to give an overview of the current stateoftheart of the degree/diameter problem. We focus mainly on the above two streams of research. However, we could not resist mentioning also results on various related problems. These include considering Moorelike bounds for special types of graphs and digraphs, such as vertextransitive, Cayley, planar, bipartite, and many others, on
Numerical Stability of Algorithms for Line Arrangements
 In Proc. 7th Annu. ACM Sympos. Comput. Geom
, 1991
"... We analyze the behavior of two line arrangement algorithms, a sweepline algorithm and an incremental algorithm, in approximate arithmetic. The algorithms have running times O(n 2 log n) and O(n 2 ) respectively. We show that each of these algorithms can be implemented to have O(nffl) relative e ..."
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Cited by 28 (6 self)
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We analyze the behavior of two line arrangement algorithms, a sweepline algorithm and an incremental algorithm, in approximate arithmetic. The algorithms have running times O(n 2 log n) and O(n 2 ) respectively. We show that each of these algorithms can be implemented to have O(nffl) relative error. This means that each algorithm produces an arrangement realized by a set of pseudolines so that each pseudoline differs from the corresponding line relatively by at most O(nffl). We also show that there is a line arrangement algorithm with O(n 2 log n) running time and O(ffl) relative error. 1 Introduction We analyze the behavior of line arrangement algorithms in approximate arithmetic. Approximate arithmetic is a set of arithmetic operations defined on the real numbers that make relative error ffl; this models floating point arithmetic. The input to a line arrangement algorithm is a set of n lines specified by real number coefficients. The output is a "combinatorial arrangement", ...
The Kauffman Bracket of Virtual Links and the BolloásRiordan Polynomial
 the Moscow Mathematical Journal. Preprint arXiv:math.GT/0609012
"... Abstract. We show that the Kauffman bracket [L] of a checkerboard colorable virtual link L is an evaluation of the Bollobás–Riordan polynomial RG L of a ribbon graph associated with L. This result generalizes the celebrated relation between the classical Kauffman bracket and the Tutte polynomial of ..."
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Cited by 26 (2 self)
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Abstract. We show that the Kauffman bracket [L] of a checkerboard colorable virtual link L is an evaluation of the Bollobás–Riordan polynomial RG L of a ribbon graph associated with L. This result generalizes the celebrated relation between the classical Kauffman bracket and the Tutte polynomial of planar graphs.
Linear Algorithms for Partitioning Embedded Graphs of Bounded Genus
 SIAM Journal of Discrete Mathematics
, 1996
"... This paper develops new techniques for constructing separators for graphs embedded on surfaces of bounded genus. For any arbitrarily small positive " we show that any nvertex graph G of genus g can be divided in O(n + g) time into components whose sizes do not exceed "n by removing a set ..."
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Cited by 24 (4 self)
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This paper develops new techniques for constructing separators for graphs embedded on surfaces of bounded genus. For any arbitrarily small positive " we show that any nvertex graph G of genus g can be divided in O(n + g) time into components whose sizes do not exceed "n by removing a set C of O( p (g + 1=")n) vertices. Our result improves the best previous ones with respect to the size of C and the time complexity of the algorithm. Moreover, we show that one can cut off from G a piece of no more than (1 \Gamma ")n vertices by removing a set of O( p n"(g" + 1) vertices. Both results are optimal up to a constant factor. Keywords: graph separator, graph genus, algorithm, divideandconquer, topological graph theory AMS(MOS) subject classifications: 05C10, 05C85, 68R10 1 Bulgarian Academy of Sci., CICT, G.Bonchev 25A, 1113 Sofia, Bulgaria 2 Department of Comp.Sci.,Rice University, P.O.Box 1892, Houston, Texas 77251, USA 1 Introduction Let S be a class of graphs closed under t...
The directed planar reachability problem
 In Proc. 25th annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FST&TCS), number 1373 in Lecture Notes in Computer Science
, 2005
"... Abstract. We investigate the stconnectivity problem for directed planar graphs, which is hard for L and is contained in NL but is not known to be complete. We show that this problem is logspacereducible to its complement, and we show that the problem of searching graphs of genus 1 reduces to the ..."
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Cited by 23 (9 self)
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Abstract. We investigate the stconnectivity problem for directed planar graphs, which is hard for L and is contained in NL but is not known to be complete. We show that this problem is logspacereducible to its complement, and we show that the problem of searching graphs of genus 1 reduces to the planar case. We also consider a previouslystudied subclass of planar graphs known as grid graphs. We show that the directed planar stconnectivity problem reduces to the reachability problem for directed grid graphs. A special case of the gridgraph reachability problem where no edges are directed from right to left is known as the “acyclic grid graph reachability problem”. We show that this problem lies in the complexity class UL. 1
Symmetry Breaking in Graphs
 Electronic Journal of Combinatorics
, 1996
"... A labeling of the vertices of a graph G, OE : V (G) ! f1; : : : ; rg, is said to be rdistinguishing provided no automorphism of the graph preserves all of the vertex labels. The distinguishing number of a graph G, denoted by D(G), is the minimum r such that G has an rdistinguishing labeling. T ..."
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Cited by 23 (4 self)
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A labeling of the vertices of a graph G, OE : V (G) ! f1; : : : ; rg, is said to be rdistinguishing provided no automorphism of the graph preserves all of the vertex labels. The distinguishing number of a graph G, denoted by D(G), is the minimum r such that G has an rdistinguishing labeling. The distinguishing number of the complete graph on t vertices is t. In contrast, we prove (i) given any group \Gamma, there is a graph G such that Aut(G) = \Gamma and D(G) = 2; (ii) D(G) = O(log(jAut(G)j)); (iii) if Aut(G) is abelian, then D(G) 2; (iv) if Aut(G) is dihedral, then D(G) 3; and (v) If Aut(G) = S 4 , then either D(G) = 2 or D(G) = 4. Mathematics Subject Classification 05C,20B,20F,68R 1