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54
Intelligent agents: Theory and practice
 The Knowledge Engineering Review
, 1995
"... The concept of an agent has become important in both Artificial Intelligence (AI) and mainstream computer science. Our aim in this paper is to point the reader at what we perceive to be the most important theoretical and practical issues associated with the design and construction of intelligent age ..."
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Cited by 1083 (80 self)
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The concept of an agent has become important in both Artificial Intelligence (AI) and mainstream computer science. Our aim in this paper is to point the reader at what we perceive to be the most important theoretical and practical issues associated with the design and construction of intelligent agents. For convenience, we divide these issues into three areas (though as the reader will see, the divisions are at times somewhat arbitrary). Agent theory is concerned with the question of what an agent is, and the use of mathematical formalisms for representing and reasoning about the properties of agents. Agent architectures can be thought of as software engineering models of agents; researchers in this area are primarily concerned with the problem of designing software or hardware systems that will satisfy the properties specified by agent theorists. Finally, agent languages are software systems for programming and experimenting with agents; these languages may embody principles proposed by theorists. The paper is not intended to serve as a tutorial introduction to all the issues mentioned; we hope instead simply to identify the most important issues, and point to work that elaborates on them. The article includes a short review of current and potential applications of agent technology.
Agent theories, architectures, and languages: a survey
, 1995
"... The concept of an agent has recently become important in Artificial Intelligence (AI), and its relatively youthful subfield, Distributed AI (DAI). Our aim in this paper is to point the reader at what we perceive to be the most important theoretical and practical issues associated with the design and ..."
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Cited by 254 (2 self)
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The concept of an agent has recently become important in Artificial Intelligence (AI), and its relatively youthful subfield, Distributed AI (DAI). Our aim in this paper is to point the reader at what we perceive to be the most important theoretical and practical issues associated with the design and construction of intelligent agents. For convenience, we divide the area into three themes (though as the reader will see, these divisions are at times somewhat arbitrary). Agent theory is concerned with the question of what an agent is, and the use of mathematical formalisms for representing and reasoning about the properties of agents. Agent architectures can be thought of as software engineering models of agents; researchers in this area are primarily concerned with the problem of constructing software or hardware systems that will satisfy the properties specified by agent theorists. Finally, agent languages are software systems for programming and experimenting with agents; these languages typically embody principles proposed by theorists. The paper is not intended to serve as a tutorial introduction to all the issues mentioned; we hope instead simply to identify the key issues, and point to work that elaborates on them. The paper closes with a detailed bibliography, and some bibliographical remarks. 1
Multilanguage Hierarchical Logics (or: How We Can Do Without Modal Logics)
, 1994
"... MultiLanguage systems (ML systems) are formal systems allowing the use of multiple distinct logical languages. In this paper we introduce a class of ML systems which use a hierarchy of first order languages, each language containing names for the language below, and propose them as an alternative to ..."
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Cited by 178 (47 self)
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MultiLanguage systems (ML systems) are formal systems allowing the use of multiple distinct logical languages. In this paper we introduce a class of ML systems which use a hierarchy of first order languages, each language containing names for the language below, and propose them as an alternative to modal logics. The motivations of our proposal are technical, epistemological and implementational. From a technical point of view, we prove, among other things, that the set of theorems of the most common modal logics can be embedded (under the obvious bijective mapping between a modal and a first order language) into that of the corresponding ML systems. Moreover, we show that ML systems have properties not holding for modal logics and argue that these properties are justified by our intuitions. This claim is motivated by the study of how ML systems can be used in the representation of beliefs (more generally, propositional attitudes) and provability, two areas where modal logics have been extensively used. Finally, from an implementation point of view, we argue that ML systems resemble closely the current practice in the computer representation of propositional attitudes and metatheoretic theorem proving.
Explicit Provability And Constructive Semantics
 Bulletin of Symbolic Logic
, 2001
"... In 1933 G odel introduced a calculus of provability (also known as modal logic S4) and left open the question of its exact intended semantics. In this paper we give a solution to this problem. We find the logic LP of propositions and proofs and show that G odel's provability calculus is nothing b ..."
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Cited by 113 (22 self)
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In 1933 G odel introduced a calculus of provability (also known as modal logic S4) and left open the question of its exact intended semantics. In this paper we give a solution to this problem. We find the logic LP of propositions and proofs and show that G odel's provability calculus is nothing but the forgetful projection of LP. This also achieves G odel's objective of defining intuitionistic propositional logic Int via classical proofs and provides a BrouwerHeytingKolmogorov style provability semantics for Int which resisted formalization since the early 1930s. LP may be regarded as a unified underlying structure for intuitionistic, modal logics, typed combinatory logic and #calculus.
The Logical Modelling of Computational MultiAgent Systems
, 1992
"... THE aim of this thesis is to investigate logical formalisms for describing, reasoning about, specifying, and perhaps ultimately verifying the properties of systems composed of multiple intelligent computational agents. There are two obvious resources available for this task. The first is the (largel ..."
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Cited by 60 (17 self)
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THE aim of this thesis is to investigate logical formalisms for describing, reasoning about, specifying, and perhaps ultimately verifying the properties of systems composed of multiple intelligent computational agents. There are two obvious resources available for this task. The first is the (largely AI) tradition of reasoning about the intentional notions (belief, desire, etc.). The second is the (mainstream computer science) tradition of temporal logics for reasoning about reactive systems. Unfortunately, neither resource is ideally suited to the task: most intentional logics have little to say on the subject of agent architecture, and tend to assume that agents are perfect reasoners, whereas models of concurrent systems from mainstream computer science typically deal with the execution of individual program instructions. This thesis proposes a solution which draws upon both resources. It defines a model of agents and multiagent systems, and then defines two execution models, which ...
Some theories of reasoned assumptions: An essay in rational psychology
, 1983
"... not be interpreted as representing the official policies, ..."
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Cited by 44 (26 self)
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not be interpreted as representing the official policies,
A Formalization of Viewpoints
 FUNDAMENTA INFORMATICAE
, 1995
"... We present a formalisation for the notion of viewpoint , a construct meant for expressing several varieties of relativised truth. The formalisation consists in a logic which extends first order predicate calculus through an axiomatization of provability and with the addition of proper reflection rul ..."
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Cited by 34 (3 self)
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We present a formalisation for the notion of viewpoint , a construct meant for expressing several varieties of relativised truth. The formalisation consists in a logic which extends first order predicate calculus through an axiomatization of provability and with the addition of proper reflection rules. The extension is not conservative, but consistency is granted. Viewpoints are defined as set of reified metalevel sentences. A proof theory for viewponts is developed which enables to carry out proofs of sentences involving several viewpoints. A semantic account of viewpoints is provided, dealing with issues of self referential theories and paradoxes, and exploiting the notion of contextual entailment . Notions such as beliefs, knowledge, truth and situations can be uniformly modeled as provability in specialised viewpoints, obtained by imposing suitable constraints on viewpoints.
A Logic for Characterizing Multiple Bounded Agents
, 2000
"... We describe a metalogic for characterizing the evolving internal reasoning of various families of agents. We view the reasoning of agents as ongoing processes rather than as fixed sets of conclusions. Our approach utilizes a strongly sorted calculus, distinguishing the application language, time ..."
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Cited by 19 (3 self)
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We describe a metalogic for characterizing the evolving internal reasoning of various families of agents. We view the reasoning of agents as ongoing processes rather than as fixed sets of conclusions. Our approach utilizes a strongly sorted calculus, distinguishing the application language, time, and various syntactic sorts. We have established soundness and completeness results corresponding to various families of agents. This allows for useful and intuitively natural characterizations of such agents' reasoning abilities. We discuss and contrast consistency issues as in the work of Montague and Thomason. We also show how to represent the concept of focus of attention in this framework. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. IIS9907482. We wish to thank the referees for their valuable comments and suggestions. 1 Keywords: logics of knowledge and beliefs, bounded agents, realtime reasoning, multiple agents. 1 Introduct...