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The Integration of Functions into Logic Programming: A Survey
, 1994
"... Functional and logic programming are the most important declarative programming paradigms, and interest in combining them has grown over the last decade. Early research concentrated on the definition and improvement of execution principles for such integrated languages, while more recently efficient ..."
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Cited by 36 (0 self)
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Functional and logic programming are the most important declarative programming paradigms, and interest in combining them has grown over the last decade. Early research concentrated on the definition and improvement of execution principles for such integrated languages, while more recently efficient implementations of these execution principles have been developed so that these languages became relevant for practical applications. In this paper we survey the development of the operational semantics as well as
Lazy Narrowing in a Graph Machine
, 1990
"... The paper investigates the implementation of lazy narrowing in the framework of a graph reduction machine. By extending an appropriate architecture for purely functional languages an abstract graph narrowing machine for a functional logic language is constructed. The machine is capable of perform ..."
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Cited by 36 (4 self)
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The paper investigates the implementation of lazy narrowing in the framework of a graph reduction machine. By extending an appropriate architecture for purely functional languages an abstract graph narrowing machine for a functional logic language is constructed. The machine is capable of performing unification and backtracking.
Graphbased Implementation of a Functional Logic Language
, 1989
"... We investigate the development of a graph reduction machine for a higherorder functional logic language by extension of an appropriate architecture for purely functional languages. To execute logic programs the machine must be capable of performing unification and backtracking. We show the integ ..."
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Cited by 34 (14 self)
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We investigate the development of a graph reduction machine for a higherorder functional logic language by extension of an appropriate architecture for purely functional languages. To execute logic programs the machine must be capable of performing unification and backtracking. We show the integration of these mechanisms in a programmed (functional) graph reduction machine. The new machine has been implemented on a transputer system.
Efficient Lazy Narrowing using Demandedness Analysis
 In Proc. of the 5th International Symposium on Programming Language Implementation and Logic Programming
, 1993
"... Functional logic programming languages have a functional syntax and use narrowing as operational semantics. Here we consider the efficient implementation of lazy narrowing, a strategy which only evaluates the arguments of a function application, if their evaluation is really demanded. For an effi ..."
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Cited by 23 (8 self)
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Functional logic programming languages have a functional syntax and use narrowing as operational semantics. Here we consider the efficient implementation of lazy narrowing, a strategy which only evaluates the arguments of a function application, if their evaluation is really demanded. For an efficient implementation of lazy narrowing it is crucial to evaluate the arguments as early as possible. Otherwise the arguments are frequently reevaluated. A demandedness analysis is used to detect which parts of the arguments can safely be evaluated before the call to the function. Several approaches (e.g. [HLW92, JMM92]) also use this idea, but they sacrify laziness in order to avoid inefficiency. Our approach is more lazy than the previous approaches, and it uses a more powerful notion of demandedness, which allows to express infinite demand patterns like e.g. spine normal form. Moreover, in contrast to the previous approaches, we take into account dependencies between the arguments o...
A Syntactic Approach to Combining Functional Notation, Lazy Evaluation and HigherOrder in LP Systems
 In The 8th International Symposium on Functional and Logic Programming (FLOPS’06
, 2006
"... Abstract. Nondeterminism and partially instantiated data structures give logic programming expressive power beyond that of functional programming. However, functional programming often provides convenient syntactic features, such as having a designated implicit output argument, which allow function ..."
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Cited by 21 (10 self)
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Abstract. Nondeterminism and partially instantiated data structures give logic programming expressive power beyond that of functional programming. However, functional programming often provides convenient syntactic features, such as having a designated implicit output argument, which allow function call nesting and sometimes results in more compact code. Functional programming also sometimes allows a more direct encoding of lazy evaluation, with its ability to deal with infinite data structures. We present a syntactic functional extension, used in the Ciao system, which can be implemented in ISOstandard Prolog systems and covers function application, predefined evaluable functors, functional definitions, quoting, and lazy evaluation. The extension is also composable with higherorder features and can be combined with other extensions to ISOProlog such as constraints. We also highlight the features of the Ciao system which help implementation and present some data on the overhead of using lazy evaluation with respect to eager evaluation.
On the Interaction of Lazy Evaluation and Backtracking
 In Proc. of the 4th International Symposium on Programming Language Implementation and Logic Programming
, 1992
"... We investigate the interaction of lazy evaluation and backtracking in the framework of functional logic languages, whose operational semantics is based on lazy narrowing. Technically, it is no problem to realize a lazy narrowing strategy by adapting the wellknown techniques, which have been develop ..."
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Cited by 21 (0 self)
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We investigate the interaction of lazy evaluation and backtracking in the framework of functional logic languages, whose operational semantics is based on lazy narrowing. Technically, it is no problem to realize a lazy narrowing strategy by adapting the wellknown techniques, which have been developed for functional languages, to the more general evaluation mechanism of functional logic languages. But, unfortunately, it turns out, that the use of a lazy strategy has some severe disadvantages. In particular, it may lead to nontermination in combination with backtracking, where an innermost strategy will determine a solution. The use of demandedness information for function arguments allows us to define a mixture between an eager and a lazy evaluation strategy, which partially helps to cope with these problems. The runtimes obtained for various example programs with respect to the different strategies, substantiate that the mixed strategy is a reasonable compromise between an eager and a...
Algebra of logic programming
 International Conference on Logic Programming
, 1999
"... At present, the field of declarative programming is split into two main areas based on different formalisms; namely, functional programming, which is based on lambda calculus, and logic programming, which is based on firstorder logic. There are currently several language proposals for integrating th ..."
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Cited by 20 (3 self)
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At present, the field of declarative programming is split into two main areas based on different formalisms; namely, functional programming, which is based on lambda calculus, and logic programming, which is based on firstorder logic. There are currently several language proposals for integrating the expressiveness of these two models of computation. In this thesis we work towards an integration of the methodology from the two research areas. To this end, we propose an algebraic approach to reasoning about logic programs, corresponding to the approach taken in functional programming. In the first half of the thesis we develop and discuss a framework which forms the basis for our algebraic analysis and transformation methods. The framework is based on an embedding of definite logic programs into lazy functional programs in Haskell, such that both the declarative and the operational semantics of the logic programs are preserved. In spite of its conciseness and apparent simplicity, the embedding proves to have many interesting properties and it gives rise to an algebraic semantics of logic programming. It also allows us to reason about logic programs in a simple calculational style, using rewriting and the algebraic laws of combinators. In the embedding, the meaning of a logic program arises compositionally from the meaning of its constituent subprograms and the combinators that connect them. In the second half of the thesis we explore applications of the embedding to the algebraic transformation of logic programs. A series of examples covers simple program derivations, where our techniques simplify some of the current techniques. Another set of examples explores applications of the more advanced program development techniques from the Algebra of Programming by Bird and de Moor [18], where we expand the techniques currently available for logic program derivation and optimisation. To my parents, Sandor and Erzsebet. And the end of all our exploring Will be to arrive where we started And know the place for the first time.
Efficient Implementation of Narrowing and Rewriting
 In Proc. Int. Workshop on Processing Declarative Knowledge
, 1991
"... Moreover, there are many cases where functional programs are more efficiently executed than their relational equivalents. 1 Introduction During the last years a lot of approaches have been proposed in order to amalgamate functional and logic programming languages [7] [1]. Such integrations have seve ..."
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Cited by 18 (8 self)
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Moreover, there are many cases where functional programs are more efficiently executed than their relational equivalents. 1 Introduction During the last years a lot of approaches have been proposed in order to amalgamate functional and logic programming languages [7] [1]. Such integrations have several advantages: 1. Functional and logic programming styles can be used in one language. 2. It extends logic programming by allowing nested expressions, i.e., it is not necessary
Implementation of Narrowing: The PrologBased Approach
 Logic programming languages: constraints, functions, and objects
, 1993
"... We present the problem of integrating functional languages and logic languages. We explain why the narrowingbased techniques have so far prevailed as operational mechanisms for the functional logic interpreters. We then discuss various strategies of narrowing. Finally we explain how to simulate the ..."
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Cited by 18 (0 self)
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We present the problem of integrating functional languages and logic languages. We explain why the narrowingbased techniques have so far prevailed as operational mechanisms for the functional logic interpreters. We then discuss various strategies of narrowing. Finally we explain how to simulate these strategies of narrowing using the leftmost SLDresolution rule of Prolog, and compare some experimental results with those obtained with direct narrowing implementations. 1. Introduction There has been a flurry of research on the integration of functional programming (FP) and logic programming (LP). A natural framework would be to consider the union of a set H of Horn clauses with a set E of conditional equations as a program. The declarative semantics of a program is then given by firstorder logic with equality [26], that is, firstorder logic extended with an equality symbol and the standard equality axioms. The operational semantics of a program is usually given by a system of infere...
Embedding prolog in haskell
 Department of Computer Science, University of Utrecht
, 1999
"... The distinctive merit of the declarative reading of logic programs is the validity ofallthelaws of reasoning supplied by the predicate calculus with equality. Surprisingly many of these laws are still valid for the procedural reading � they can therefore be used safely for algebraic manipulation, pr ..."
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Cited by 16 (4 self)
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The distinctive merit of the declarative reading of logic programs is the validity ofallthelaws of reasoning supplied by the predicate calculus with equality. Surprisingly many of these laws are still valid for the procedural reading � they can therefore be used safely for algebraic manipulation, program transformation and optimisation of executable logic programs. This paper lists a number of common laws, and proves their validity for the standard (depth rst search) procedural reading of Prolog. They also hold for alternative search strategies, e.g. breadth rst search. Our proofs of the laws are based on the standard algebra of functional programming, after the strategies have been given a rather simple implementation in Haskell. 1