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22
Naturally Embedded Query Languages
 LNCS 646: Proceedings of 4th International Conference on Database Theory
, 1992
"... We investigate the properties of a simple programming language whose main computational engine is structural recursion on sets. We describe a progression of sublanguages in this paradigm that (1) have increasing expressive power, and (2) illustrate robust conceptual restrictions thus exhibiting inte ..."
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Cited by 132 (26 self)
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We investigate the properties of a simple programming language whose main computational engine is structural recursion on sets. We describe a progression of sublanguages in this paradigm that (1) have increasing expressive power, and (2) illustrate robust conceptual restrictions thus exhibiting interesting additional properties. These properties suggest that we consider our sublanguages as candidates for "query languages". Viewing query languages as restrictions of our more general programming language has several advantages. First, there is no "impedance mismatch" problem; the query languages are already there, so they share common semantic foundation with the general language. Second, we suggest a uniform characterization of nested relational and complexobject algebras in terms of some surprisingly simple operators; and we can make comparisons of expressiveness in a general framework. Third, we exhibit differences in expressive power that are not always based on complexity arguments...
Towards Tractable Algebras for Bags
, 1993
"... Bags, i.e. sets with duplicates, are often used to implement relations in database systems. In this paper, we study the expressive power of algebras for manipulating bags. The algebra we present is a simple extension of the nested relation algebra. Our aim is to investigate how the use of bags in ..."
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Cited by 61 (4 self)
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Bags, i.e. sets with duplicates, are often used to implement relations in database systems. In this paper, we study the expressive power of algebras for manipulating bags. The algebra we present is a simple extension of the nested relation algebra. Our aim is to investigate how the use of bags in the language extends its expressive power, and increases its complexity. We consider two main issues, namely (i) the impact of the depth of bag nesting on the expressive power, and (ii) the complexity and the expressive power induced by the algebraic operations. We show that the bag algebra is more expressive than the nested relation algebra (at all levels of nesting), and that the difference may be subtle. We establish a hierarchy based on the structure of algebra expressions. This hierarchy is shown to be highly related to the properties of the powerset operator. Invited to a special issue of the Journal of Computer and System Sciences selected from ACM Princ. of Database Systems,...
Normal Forms and Conservative Properties for Query Languages over Collection Types
 In Proceedings of 12th ACM Symposium on Principles of Database Systems
, 1993
"... Strong normalization results are obtained for a general language for collection types. An induced normal form for sets and bags is then used to show that the class of functions whose input has height (that is, the maximal depth of nestings of sets/bags/lists in the complex object) at most i and out ..."
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Cited by 54 (25 self)
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Strong normalization results are obtained for a general language for collection types. An induced normal form for sets and bags is then used to show that the class of functions whose input has height (that is, the maximal depth of nestings of sets/bags/lists in the complex object) at most i and output has height at most o definable in a nested relational query language without powerset operator is independent of the height of intermediate expressions used. Our proof holds regardless of whether the language is used for querying sets, bags, or lists, even in the presence of variant types. Moreover, the normal forms are useful in a general approach to query optimization. Paredaens and Van Gucht proved a similar result for the special case when i = o = 1. Their result is complemented by Hull and Su who demonstrated the failure of independence when powerset operator is present and i = o = 1. The theorem of Hull and Su was generalized to all i and o by Grumbach and Vianu. Our result genera...
On the expressive power of database queries with intermediate types
 Journal of Computer and System Sciences
, 1991
"... The setheight of a complex object type is defined to be its level of nesting of the set construct. In a query of the complex object calculus which maps a database D to an output type T,anintermediate type is a type which is used by some variable of the query, but which is not present in D or T.Fore ..."
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Cited by 44 (2 self)
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The setheight of a complex object type is defined to be its level of nesting of the set construct. In a query of the complex object calculus which maps a database D to an output type T,anintermediate type is a type which is used by some variable of the query, but which is not present in D or T.Foreachk, i ≥ 0 we define CALCk,i to be the family of calculus queries mapping from and to types with setheight ≤ k and using intermediate types with setheight ≤ i. In particular, CALC0,0 is the classical relational calculus, and CALC0,1 is equivalent to the family of secondorder (relational) queries. Several results concerning these families of languages are obtained. A primary focus is on the families CALC0,i, which map relations to relations. Upper and lower bounds in terms of hyperexponential time and space on the complexity of these families are provided. The CALC0,i hierarchy does not collapse with respect to expressive power. The union ∪0≤iCALC0,i is exactly the family of elementary queries, i.e., queries with hyperexponential complexity. The expressive power of queries from the complex object calculus interpreted using semantics based on the use of arbitrarily large finite or infinite set of invented values is studied. Under these semantics, the expressive power of the relational calculus is not increased, and the CALC0,i hierarchy collapses at CALC0,1. In general, queries with these semantics may not be computable. We also consider an alternative semantics which yields a family of queries equivalent to the computable queries. 1
On the Complexity of Nonrecursive XQuery and Functional Query Languages on Complex Values
 In Proc. PODS’05
"... This article studies the complexity of evaluating functional query languages for complex values such as monad algebra and the recursionfree fragment of XQuery. We show that monad algebra with equality restricted to atomic values is complete for the class TA[2O(n) , O(n)] of problems solvable in lin ..."
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Cited by 40 (1 self)
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This article studies the complexity of evaluating functional query languages for complex values such as monad algebra and the recursionfree fragment of XQuery. We show that monad algebra with equality restricted to atomic values is complete for the class TA[2O(n) , O(n)] of problems solvable in linear exponential time with a linear number of alternations. The monotone fragment of monad algebra with atomic value equality but without negation is complete for nondeterministic exponential time. For monad algebra with deep equality, we establish TA[2O(n) , O(n)] lower and exponentialspace upper bounds. We also study a fragment of XQuery, Core XQuery, that seems to incorporate all the features of a query language on complex values that are traditionally deemed essential. A close connection between monad algebra on lists and Core XQuery (with “child ” as the only axis) is exhibited, and it is shown that these languages are expressively equivalent up to representation issues. We show that Core XQuery is just as hard as monad algebra w.r.t. query and combined complexity, and that it is in TC0 if the query is assumed fixed. As Core XQuery is NEXPTIMEhard, it is commonly believed that any algorithm for evaluating Core XQuery has to require exponential amounts of working memory and doubly exponential time in the worst case. We present a property of queries – the lack of a certain form of composition – that virtually all realworld XQueries have and that allows for query evaluation in singly exponential time and polynomial space. Still, we are able to show for an important special case – Core XQuery with equality testing restricted to atomic values – that the compositionfree language is just as expressive as the language with composition. Thus, under widelyheld complexitytheoretic assumptions, the compositionfree language is an exponentially less succinct version of the language with composition.
Tractable Query Languages for Complex Object Databases
, 1995
"... The expressiveness and complexity of several calculusbased query languages for complex objects is considered. Unlike previous investigations, we are concerned with the complexity of queries on databases of complex objects, rather than flat databases. This raises new issues specific to complex objec ..."
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Cited by 26 (4 self)
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The expressiveness and complexity of several calculusbased query languages for complex objects is considered. Unlike previous investigations, we are concerned with the complexity of queries on databases of complex objects, rather than flat databases. This raises new issues specific to complex objects. For instance, it is shown that the way the database makes use of its higherorder types has direct impact on query complexity. The use of fixpoint operators is shown to yield languages wellbehaved with respect to complexity and expressiveness. In particular, an extension of the fixpoint queries to complex objects is shown to express precisely the PTIME queries, under the assumption that the database makes "full" use of all its types. Similar results involve rangerestricted queries. 1 Introduction Complex objects are increasingly part of advanced database systems. They provide the structural core of objectoriented databases. Several query languages for complex objects have been propo...
Manipulating Spatial Data in Constraint Databases
, 1997
"... . Constraint databases have recently been proposed as a powerful framework to model and retrieve spatial data. In a constraint database, a spatial object is represented as a quantifier free conjunction of (usually linear) constraints, called generalized tuple. The set of solutions of such quantifier ..."
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Cited by 25 (4 self)
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. Constraint databases have recently been proposed as a powerful framework to model and retrieve spatial data. In a constraint database, a spatial object is represented as a quantifier free conjunction of (usually linear) constraints, called generalized tuple. The set of solutions of such quantifier free formula represents the set of points belonging to the extension of the object. The relational algebra can be easily extended to deal with generalized relations. However, such algebra has some limitations when it is used for modeling spatial data. First of all, there is no explicit way to deal with the set of points representing a spatial object as a whole. Rather, only pointbased computations can be performed using this algebra. Second, practical constraint database languages typically use linear constraints. This allows to use efficient algorithms but, at the same time, some interesting queries cannot be represented (for example, the distance between two objects cannot be computed). ...
Database Query Languages Embedded in the Typed Lambda Calculus
, 1993
"... We investigate the expressive power of the typed calculus when expressing computations over finite structures, i.e., databases. We show that the simply typed calculus can express various database query languages such as the relational algebra, fixpoint logic, and the complex object algebra. In ..."
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Cited by 25 (6 self)
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We investigate the expressive power of the typed calculus when expressing computations over finite structures, i.e., databases. We show that the simply typed calculus can express various database query languages such as the relational algebra, fixpoint logic, and the complex object algebra. In our embeddings, inputs and outputs are terms encoding databases, and a program expressing a query is a term which types when applied to an input and reduces to an output.
Extensible Query Processing in an ObjectOriented Database
, 1993
"... In this thesis we address the problem of providing efficient processing of queries in the extensible environment induced by objectoriented databases. We define a framework for query processing in an objectoriented database and develop designs for major components of this framework. The framework e ..."
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Cited by 21 (1 self)
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In this thesis we address the problem of providing efficient processing of queries in the extensible environment induced by objectoriented databases. We define a framework for query processing in an objectoriented database and develop designs for major components of this framework. The framework encompasses an objectoriented data model, an algebra to query over that model, transformation rules for the algebra, an internal representation for queries expressed in the algebra, a cost model for analyzing query expressions, and an architecture for an extensible query optimizer. The major contributions of this thesis are an algebra and transformation rules, a representation, and an architecture for extensible query optimization. We show how these components fit into the framework and interact with each other. The EQUAL query algebra presented in this thesis is the first query algebra for objectoriented database systems to be completely consistent with data abstraction, and one of the few...
A Query Language for NC
 In Proceedings of 13th ACM Symposium on Principles of Database Systems
, 1994
"... We show that a form of divide and conquer recursion on sets together with the relational algebra expresses exactly the queries over ordered relational databases which are NC computable. At a finer level, we relate k nested uses of recursion exactly to AC k , k 1. We also give corresponding resul ..."
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Cited by 16 (9 self)
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We show that a form of divide and conquer recursion on sets together with the relational algebra expresses exactly the queries over ordered relational databases which are NC computable. At a finer level, we relate k nested uses of recursion exactly to AC k , k 1. We also give corresponding results for complex objects. 1 Introduction NC is the complexity class of functions that are computable in polylogarithmic time with polynomially many processors on a parallel random access machine (PRAM). The query language for NC discussed here is centered around a form of divide and conquer recursion (dcr ) on finite sets which has obvious potential for parallel evaluation and can easily express, for example, transitive closure and parity. Divide and conquer with parameters e; f; u defines the unique function ', notation dcr (e; f; u), taking finite sets as arguments, such that: '(;) def = e '(fyg) def = f(y) '(s 1 [ s 2 ) def = u('(s 1 ); '(s 2 )) when s 1 " s 2 = ; For parity, we t...