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258
Pictorial Structures for Object Recognition
 IJCV
, 2003
"... In this paper we present a statistical framework for modeling the appearance of objects. Our work is motivated by the pictorial structure models introduced by Fischler and Elschlager. The basic idea is to model an object by a collection of parts arranged in a deformable configuration. The appearance ..."
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Cited by 524 (15 self)
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In this paper we present a statistical framework for modeling the appearance of objects. Our work is motivated by the pictorial structure models introduced by Fischler and Elschlager. The basic idea is to model an object by a collection of parts arranged in a deformable configuration. The appearance of each part is modeled separately, and the deformable configuration is represented by springlike connections between pairs of parts. These models allow for qualitative descriptions of visual appearance, and are suitable for generic recognition problems. We use these models to address the problem of detecting an object in an image as well as the problem of learning an object model from training examples, and present efficient algorithms for both these problems. We demonstrate the techniques by learning models that represent faces and human bodies and using the resulting models to locate the corresponding objects in novel images.
Comparing Images Using the Hausdorff Distance
 IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
, 1993
"... The Hausdorff distance measures the extent to which each point of a `model' set lies near some point of an `image' set and vice versa. Thus this distance can be used to determine the degree of resemblance between two objects that are superimposed on one another. In this paper we provide efficient al ..."
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Cited by 482 (9 self)
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The Hausdorff distance measures the extent to which each point of a `model' set lies near some point of an `image' set and vice versa. Thus this distance can be used to determine the degree of resemblance between two objects that are superimposed on one another. In this paper we provide efficient algorithms for computing the Hausdorff distance between all possible relative positions of a binary image and a model. We focus primarily on the case in which the model is only allowed to translate with respect to the image. Then we consider how to extend the techniques to rigid motion (translation and rotation). The Hausdorff distance computation differs from many other shape comparison methods in that no correspondence between the model and the image is derived. The method is quite tolerant of small position errors as occur with edge detectors and other feature extraction methods. Moreover, we show how the method extends naturally to the problem of comparing a portion of a model against an i...
Morphological grayscale reconstruction in image analysis: Applications and efficient algorithms
 IEEE Transactions on Image Processing
, 1993
"... Morphological reconstruction is part of a set of image operators often referred to as geodesic. In the binary case, reconstruction simply extracts the connected components of a binary image I (the mask) which are \marked " by a (binary) image J contained in I. This transformation can be extende ..."
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Cited by 202 (1 self)
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Morphological reconstruction is part of a set of image operators often referred to as geodesic. In the binary case, reconstruction simply extracts the connected components of a binary image I (the mask) which are \marked " by a (binary) image J contained in I. This transformation can be extended to the grayscale case, where it turns out to be extremely useful for several image analysis tasks. This paper rst provides two di erent formal de nitions of grayscale reconstruction. It then illustrates the use of grayscale reconstruction in various image processing applications and aims at demonstrating the usefulness of this transformation for image ltering and segmentation tasks. Lastly, the paper focuses on implementation issues: the standard parallel and sequential approaches to reconstruction are brie y recalled; their common drawback is their ine ciency on conventional computers. To improve this situation, a new algorithm is introduced, which is based on the notion of regional maxima and makes use of breadthrst image scannings implemented via a queue of pixels. Its combination with the sequential technique results in a hybrid grayscale reconstruction algorithm which is an order of magnitude faster than any previously known algorithm. Published in the IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, Vol. 2, No. 2, pp. 176{201,
A Survey of Shape Analysis Techniques
 Pattern Recognition
, 1998
"... This paper provides a review of shape analysis methods. Shape analysis methods play an important role in systems for object recognition, matching, registration, and analysis. Researchin shape analysis has been motivated, in part, by studies of human visual form perception systems. ..."
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Cited by 200 (2 self)
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This paper provides a review of shape analysis methods. Shape analysis methods play an important role in systems for object recognition, matching, registration, and analysis. Researchin shape analysis has been motivated, in part, by studies of human visual form perception systems.
Survey over Image Thresholding Techniques and Quantitative Performance Evaluation
, 2004
"... We conduct an exhaustive survey of image thresholding methods, categorize them, express their formulas under a uniform notation, and finally carry their performance comparison. The thresholding methods are categorized according to the information they are exploiting, such as histogram shape, measure ..."
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Cited by 200 (1 self)
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We conduct an exhaustive survey of image thresholding methods, categorize them, express their formulas under a uniform notation, and finally carry their performance comparison. The thresholding methods are categorized according to the information they are exploiting, such as histogram shape, measurement space clustering, entropy, object attributes, spatial correlation, and local graylevel surface. 40 selected thresholding methods from various categories are compared in the context of nondestructive testing applications as well as for document images. The comparison is based on the combined performance measures. We identify the thresholding algorithms that perform uniformly better over nondestructive testing and document image applications. 2004 SPIE and IS&T. [DOI: 10.1117/1.1631316] 1
Efficient Matching of Pictorial Structures
 Proc. IEEE Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition Conf.
, 2000
"... A pictorial structure is a collection of parts arranged in a deformable configuration. Each part is represented using a simple appearance model and the deformable configuration is represented by springlike connections between pairs of parts. While pictorial structures were introduced a number of ye ..."
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Cited by 161 (9 self)
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A pictorial structure is a collection of parts arranged in a deformable configuration. Each part is represented using a simple appearance model and the deformable configuration is represented by springlike connections between pairs of parts. While pictorial structures were introduced a number of years ago, they have not been broadly applied to matching and recognition problems. This has been due in part to the computational difficulty of matching pictorial structures to images. In this paper we present an efficient algorithm for finding the best global match of a pictorial structure to an image. The running time of the algorithm is optimal and it it takes only a few seconds to match a model with ve to ten parts. With this improved algorithm, pictorial structures provide a practical and powerful framework for qualitative descriptions of objects and scenes, and are suitable for many generic image recognition problems. We illustrate the approach using simple models of a person and a car.
Matching 3D Anatomical Surfaces with NonRigid Deformations using OctreeSplines
 International Journal of Computer Vision
, 1996
"... Abstract. This paper presents a new method for determining the minimal nonrigid deformation between two 3D surfaces, such as those which describe anatomical structures in 3D medical images. Although we match surfaces, we represent the deformation as a volumetric transformation. Our method perform ..."
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Cited by 130 (3 self)
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Abstract. This paper presents a new method for determining the minimal nonrigid deformation between two 3D surfaces, such as those which describe anatomical structures in 3D medical images. Although we match surfaces, we represent the deformation as a volumetric transformation. Our method performs a least squares minimization of the distance between the two surfaces of interest. To quickly and accurately compute distances between points on the two surfaces, we use a precomputed distance map represented using an octree spline whose resolution increases near the surface. To quickly and robustly compute the deformation, we use a second octree spline to model the deformation function. The coarsest level of the deformation encodes the global (e.g., affine) transformation between the two surfaces, while finer levels encode smooth local displacements which bring the two surfaces into closer registration. We present experimental results on both synthetic and real 3D surfaces. 1.
Hierarchic Voronoi Skeletons
, 1995
"... Robust and timeefficient skeletonization of a (planar) shape, which is connectivity preserving and based on Euclidean metrics, can be achieved by first regularizing the Voronoi diagram (VD) of a shape's boundary points, i.e., by removal of noisesensitive parts of the tessellation and then by estab ..."
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Cited by 122 (3 self)
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Robust and timeefficient skeletonization of a (planar) shape, which is connectivity preserving and based on Euclidean metrics, can be achieved by first regularizing the Voronoi diagram (VD) of a shape's boundary points, i.e., by removal of noisesensitive parts of the tessellation and then by establishing a hierarchic organization of skeleton constituents. Each component of the VD is attributed with a measure of prominence which exhibits the expected invariance under geometric transformations and noise. The second processing step, a hierarchic clustering of skeleton branches, leads to a multiresolution representation of the skeleton, termed skeleton pyramid.
Distance transforms of sampled functions
 Cornell Computing and Information Science
, 2004
"... This paper provides lineartime algorithms for solving a class of minimization problems involving a cost function with both local and spatial terms. These problems can be viewed as a generalization of classical distance transforms of binary images, where the binary image is replaced by an arbitrary ..."
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Cited by 119 (10 self)
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This paper provides lineartime algorithms for solving a class of minimization problems involving a cost function with both local and spatial terms. These problems can be viewed as a generalization of classical distance transforms of binary images, where the binary image is replaced by an arbitrary sampled function. Alternatively they can be viewed in terms of the minimum convolution of two functions, which is an important operation in grayscale morphology. A useful consequence of our techniques is a simple, fast method for computing the Euclidean distance transform of a binary image. The methods are also applicable to Viterbi decoding, belief propagation and optimal control. 1
A shapebased approach to the segmentation of medical imagery using level sets
 IEEE Trans. Med. Imag
, 2003
"... Abstract—We propose a shapebased approach to curve evolution for the segmentation of medical images containing known object types. In particular, motivated by the work of Leventon, Grimson, and Faugeras [15], we derive a parametric model for an implicit representation of the segmenting curve by app ..."
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Cited by 119 (10 self)
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Abstract—We propose a shapebased approach to curve evolution for the segmentation of medical images containing known object types. In particular, motivated by the work of Leventon, Grimson, and Faugeras [15], we derive a parametric model for an implicit representation of the segmenting curve by applying principal component analysis to a collection of signed distance representations of the training data. The parameters of this representation are then manipulated to minimize an objective function for segmentation. The resulting algorithm is able to handle multidimensional data, can deal with topological changes of the curve, is robust to noise and initial contour placements, and is computationally efficient. At the same time, it avoids the need for point correspondences during the training phase of the algorithm. We demonstrate this technique by applying it to two medical applications; twodimensional segmentation of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and threedimensional segmentation of prostate MRI. Index Terms—Active contours, binary image alignment, cardiac MRI segmentation, curve evolution, deformable model, distance transforms, eigenshapes, implicit shape representation, medical image segmentation, parametric shape model, principal component analysis, prostate segmentation, shape prior, statistical shape model. I.