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22
Extending distortion viewing from 2D to 3D
 Computer Graphics and Applications, IEEE
, 1997
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3Dimensional Pliable Surfaces: For the Effective Presentation of Visual Information
 IN PROCEEDINGS OF UIST'95
, 1995
"... A fundamental issue in user interface design is the effective use of available screen space, commonly referred to as the screen real estate problem. This paper presents a new distortionbased viewing tool for exploring large information spaces through the use of a threedimensional pliable surface. ..."
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Cited by 51 (14 self)
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A fundamental issue in user interface design is the effective use of available screen space, commonly referred to as the screen real estate problem. This paper presents a new distortionbased viewing tool for exploring large information spaces through the use of a threedimensional pliable surface. Arbitrarilyshaped regions (foci) on the surface may be selected and pulled towards or pushed away from the viewer thereby increasing or decreasing the level of detail contained within each region. Furthermore, multiple foci are smoothly blended together such that there is no loss of context. The manipulation and blending of foci is accomplished using a fairly simple mathematical model based on gaussian curves. The significance of this approach is that it utilizes precognitive perceptual cues about the threedimensional surface to make the distortions comprehensible, and allows the user to interactively control the location, shape, and extent of the distortion in very large graphs or maps.
A Multidimensional Approach to ForceDirected Layouts of Large Graphs
, 2000
"... Abstract. We present a novel hierarchical forcedirected method for drawing large graphs. The algorithm produces a graph embedding in an Euclidean space E of any dimension. A two or three dimensional drawing of the graph is then obtained by projecting a higherdimensional embedding into a two or thr ..."
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Cited by 36 (5 self)
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Abstract. We present a novel hierarchical forcedirected method for drawing large graphs. The algorithm produces a graph embedding in an Euclidean space E of any dimension. A two or three dimensional drawing of the graph is then obtained by projecting a higherdimensional embedding into a two or three dimensional subspace of E. Projecting highdimensional drawings onto two or three dimensions often results in drawings that are “smoother ” and more symmetric. Among the other notable features of our approach are the utilization of a maximal independent set filtration of the set of vertices of a graph, a fast energy function minimization strategy, efficient memory management, and an intelligent initial placement of vertices. Our implementation of the algorithm can draw graphs with tens of thousands of vertices using a negligible amount of memory in less than one minute on a midrange PC. 1
A Fast MultiDimensional Algorithm for Drawing Large Graphs
 In Graph Drawing’00 Conference Proceedings
, 2000
"... We present a novel hierarchical forcedirected method for drawing large graphs. The algorithm produces a graph embedding in an Euclidean space E of any dimension. A two or three dimensional drawing of the graph is then obtained by projecting a higherdimensional embedding into a two or three dimensi ..."
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Cited by 28 (4 self)
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We present a novel hierarchical forcedirected method for drawing large graphs. The algorithm produces a graph embedding in an Euclidean space E of any dimension. A two or three dimensional drawing of the graph is then obtained by projecting a higherdimensional embedding into a two or three dimensional subspace of E. Projecting highdimensional drawings onto two or three dimensions often results in drawings that are "smoother" and more symmetric. Among the other notable features of our approach are the utilization of a maximal independent set filtration of the set of vertices of a graph, a fast energy function minimization strategy, e#cient memory management, and an intelligent initial placement of vertices. Our implementation of the algorithm can draw graphs with tens of thousands of vertices using a negligible amount of memory in less than one minute on a midrange PC. 1 Introduction Graphs are common in many applications, from data structures to networks, from software engineering...
Balanced Aspect Ratio Trees and Their Use for Drawing Very Large Graphs
 Journal of Graph Algorithms and Applications
, 1998
"... We describe a new approach for clusterbased drawing of large graphs, which obtains clusters by using binary space partition (BSP) trees. We also introduce a novel BSPtype decomposition, called the balanced aspect ratio (BAR) tree, which guarantees that the cells produced are convex and have bounde ..."
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Cited by 20 (9 self)
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We describe a new approach for clusterbased drawing of large graphs, which obtains clusters by using binary space partition (BSP) trees. We also introduce a novel BSPtype decomposition, called the balanced aspect ratio (BAR) tree, which guarantees that the cells produced are convex and have bounded aspect ratios. In addition, the tree depth is O(log n), and its construction takes O(n log n) time, where n is the number of points. We show that the BAR tree can be used to recursively divide a graph embedded in the plane into subgraphs of roughly equal size, such that the drawing of each subgraph has a balanced aspect ratio. As a result, we obtain a representation of a graph as a collection of O(log n) layers, where each succeeding layer represents the graph in an increasing level of detail. The overall running time of the algorithm is O(n log n+m+D0(G)), where n and m are the number of vertices and edges of the graph G, andD0(G) is the time it takes to obtain an initial embedding of G in the plane. In particular, if the graph is planar each layer is a graph drawn with straight lines and without crossings on the n×n grid and the running time reduces to O(n log n).
Graph Folding: Extending Detail and Context Viewing into a Tool for Subgraph Comparisons
 PROCEEDINGS OF THE SYMPOSIUM ON GRAPH DRAWING (GD'95), VOLUME 1027 OF LECTURE NOTES IN COMPUTER SCIENCE
, 1995
"... It is a difficult problem to display large, complex graphs in a manner which furthers comprehension. A useful approach is to expand selected sections (foci) of the graph revealing details of subgraphs. If this expansion is maintained within the context of the entire graph, information is provide ..."
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Cited by 18 (3 self)
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It is a difficult problem to display large, complex graphs in a manner which furthers comprehension. A useful approach is to expand selected sections (foci) of the graph revealing details of subgraphs. If this expansion is maintained within the context of the entire graph, information is provided about how subgraphs are embedded in the overall structure. Often it is also desirable to realign these foci in order to facilitate the visual comparison of subgraphs. We have introduced a distortionbased viewing tool, threedimensional pliable surface (3DPS) [1], which allows for multiple arbitrarilyshaped foci on a surface that can be manipulated by the viewer to control the level of detail contained within each region. This paper extends 3DPS to include the repositioning of foci so as to bring together spatially separated regions for the purpose of comparison while retaining the effect of detail in context viewing. The significance of this approach is that it utilizes precog...
A Cognitive Framework For Describing And Evaluating Software Exploration Tools
, 1998
"... Software programs, especially legacy programs, are often large, complex and poorly documented. To maintain these programs software engineers require a variety of efficient analytical tools. Some software maintenance tools use visualizations (i.e. graphical views) to communicate information about sof ..."
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Cited by 17 (0 self)
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Software programs, especially legacy programs, are often large, complex and poorly documented. To maintain these programs software engineers require a variety of efficient analytical tools. Some software maintenance tools use visualizations (i.e. graphical views) to communicate information about software systems. Although many software visualization tools exist, the majority of them are not very effective in practice. Part of the problem is that they are designed in an ad hoc manner, with little empirical evaluation. They are often criticized because they try to force programmers to use a specific approach to understanding software rather than supporting their own approaches. The result is that current software visualization tools do not play as big a role in industry as was anticipated by some researchers. The tools that are used are very basic, consisting of mainly text editors and searching features. With increasingly fast computing platforms, there is great potential for the use of...
Making Distortions Comprehensible
 IN PROC. 1997 SYMP. ON VISUAL LANGUAGES (VL'97
, 1997
"... This paper discusses visual information representation from the perspective of human comprehension. The distortion viewing paradigm is an appropriate focus for this discussion as its motivation has always been to create more understandable displays. While these techniques are becoming increasingly p ..."
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Cited by 14 (4 self)
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This paper discusses visual information representation from the perspective of human comprehension. The distortion viewing paradigm is an appropriate focus for this discussion as its motivation has always been to create more understandable displays. While these techniques are becoming increasingly popular for exploring images that are larger than the available screen space, in fact users sometimes report confusion and disorientation. We provide an overview of structural changes made in response to this phenomenon and examine methods for incorporating visual cues based on human perceptual skills.