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48
Higherdimensional algebra VI: Lie 2algebras,
, 2004
"... The theory of Lie algebras can be categorified starting from a new notion of ‘2vector space’, which we define as an internal category in Vect. There is a 2category 2Vect having these 2vector spaces as objects, ‘linear functors’ as morphisms and ‘linear natural transformations ’ as 2morphisms. We ..."
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Cited by 43 (12 self)
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The theory of Lie algebras can be categorified starting from a new notion of ‘2vector space’, which we define as an internal category in Vect. There is a 2category 2Vect having these 2vector spaces as objects, ‘linear functors’ as morphisms and ‘linear natural transformations ’ as 2morphisms. We define a ‘semistrict Lie 2algebra ’ to be a 2vector space L equipped with a skewsymmetric bilinear functor [·, ·]: L × L → L satisfying the Jacobi identity up to a completely antisymmetric trilinear natural transformation called the ‘Jacobiator’, which in turn must satisfy a certain law of its own. This law is closely related to the Zamolodchikov tetrahedron equation, and indeed we prove that any semistrict Lie 2algebra gives a solution of this equation, just as any Lie algebra gives a solution of the Yang–Baxter equation. We construct a 2category of semistrict Lie 2algebras and prove that it is 2equivalent to the 2category of 2term L∞algebras in the sense of Stasheff. We also study strict and skeletal Lie 2algebras, obtaining the former from strict Lie 2groups and using the latter to classify Lie 2algebras in terms of 3rd cohomology classes in Lie algebra cohomology. This classification allows us to construct for any finitedimensional Lie algebra g a canonical 1parameter family of Lie 2algebras g � which reduces to g at � = 0. These are closely related to the 2groups G � constructed in a companion paper.
Higherdimensional algebra IV: 2Tangles
"... Just as knots and links can be algebraically described as certain morphisms in the category of tangles in 3 dimensions, compact surfaces smoothly embedded in R 4 can be described as certain 2morphisms in the 2category of ‘2tangles in 4 dimensions’. Using the work of Carter, Rieger and Saito, we p ..."
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Cited by 35 (10 self)
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Just as knots and links can be algebraically described as certain morphisms in the category of tangles in 3 dimensions, compact surfaces smoothly embedded in R 4 can be described as certain 2morphisms in the 2category of ‘2tangles in 4 dimensions’. Using the work of Carter, Rieger and Saito, we prove that this 2category is the ‘free semistrict braided monoidal 2category with duals on one unframed selfdual object’. By this universal property, any unframed selfdual object in a braided monoidal 2category with duals determines an invariant of 2tangles in 4 dimensions. 1
Representable Multicategories
 Advances in Mathematics
, 2000
"... We introduce the notion of representable multicategory , which stands in the same relation to that of monoidal category as bration does to contravariant pseudofunctor (into Cat). We give an abstract reformulation of multicategories as monads in a suitable Kleisli bicategory of spans. We describe ..."
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Cited by 33 (6 self)
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We introduce the notion of representable multicategory , which stands in the same relation to that of monoidal category as bration does to contravariant pseudofunctor (into Cat). We give an abstract reformulation of multicategories as monads in a suitable Kleisli bicategory of spans. We describe representability in elementary terms via universal arrows . We also give a doctrinal characterisation of representability based on a fundamental monadic adjunction between the 2category of multicategories and that of strict monoidal categories. The first main result is the coherence theorem for representable multicategories, asserting their equivalence to strict ones, which we establish via a new technique based on the above doctrinal characterisation. The other main result is a 2equivalence between the 2category of representable multicategories and that of monoidal categories and strong monoidal functors. This correspondence extends smoothly to one between bicategories and a se...
Generalized Centers of Braided and Sylleptic Monoidal 2Categories
, 1997
"... Recent developments in higherdimensional algebra due to Kapranov and Voevodsky, Day and Street, and Baez and Neuchl include definitions of braided, sylleptic and symmetric monoidal 2categories, and a center construction for monoidal 2categories which gives a braided monoidal 2category. I give ge ..."
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Cited by 25 (3 self)
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Recent developments in higherdimensional algebra due to Kapranov and Voevodsky, Day and Street, and Baez and Neuchl include definitions of braided, sylleptic and symmetric monoidal 2categories, and a center construction for monoidal 2categories which gives a braided monoidal 2category. I give generalized center constructions for braided and sylleptic monoidal 2categories which give sylleptic and symmetric monoidal 2categories respectively, and I correct some errors in the original center construction for monoidal 2categories. 1 Introduction The initial motivation for the study of braided monoidal categories was twofold: from homotopy theory, where braided monoidal categories of a particular kind arise as algebraic 3types of arcconnected, simply connected spaces, and from higherdimensional category theory, where braided monoidal categories arise as one object monoidal bicategories [16]. These motivations have subsequently been brought together by the definition of tricategori...
Frobenius monads and pseudomonoids
 2CATEGORIES COMPANION 73
, 2004
"... Six equivalent definitions of Frobenius algebra in a monoidal category are provided. In a monoidal bicategory, a pseudoalgebra is Frobenius if and only i f it is star autonomous. Autonomous pseudoalgebras are also Frobenius. What i t means for a morphism of a bicategory to be a projective equivalenc ..."
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Cited by 19 (4 self)
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Six equivalent definitions of Frobenius algebra in a monoidal category are provided. In a monoidal bicategory, a pseudoalgebra is Frobenius if and only i f it is star autonomous. Autonomous pseudoalgebras are also Frobenius. What i t means for a morphism of a bicategory to be a projective equivalence is defined; this concept is related to "strongly separable " Frobenius algebras and "weak monoidal Morita equivalence". Wreath products of Frobenius algebras are discussed.
Quantum categories, star autonomy, and quantum groupoids
 in "Galois Theory, Hopf Algebras, and Semiabelian Categories", Fields Institute Communications 43 (American Math. Soc
, 2004
"... Abstract A useful general concept of bialgebroid seems to be resolving itself in recent publications; we give a treatment in terms of modules and enriched categories. Generalizing this concept, we define the term "quantum category"in a braided monoidal category with equalizers distributed ..."
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Cited by 19 (8 self)
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Abstract A useful general concept of bialgebroid seems to be resolving itself in recent publications; we give a treatment in terms of modules and enriched categories. Generalizing this concept, we define the term "quantum category"in a braided monoidal category with equalizers distributed over by tensoring with an object. The definition of antipode for a bialgebroid is less resolved in the literature. Our suggestion is that the kind of dualization occurring in Barr's starautonomous categories is more suitable than autonomy ( = compactness = rigidity). This leads to our definition of quantum groupoid intended as a "Hopf algebra with several objects". 1.
A BiCategorical Axiomatisation of Concurrent Graph Rewriting
, 1999
"... In this paper the concurrent semantics of doublepushout (DPO) graph rewriting, which is classically defined in terms of shiftequivalence classes of graph derivations, is axiomatised via the construction of a free monoidal bicategory. In contrast to a previous attempt based on 2categories, the us ..."
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Cited by 18 (10 self)
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In this paper the concurrent semantics of doublepushout (DPO) graph rewriting, which is classically defined in terms of shiftequivalence classes of graph derivations, is axiomatised via the construction of a free monoidal bicategory. In contrast to a previous attempt based on 2categories, the use of bicategories allows to define rewriting on concrete graphs. Thus, the problem of composition of isomorphism classes of rewriting sequences is avoided. Moreover, as a first step towards the recovery of the full expressive power of the formalism via a purely algebraic description, the concept of disconnected rules is introduced, i.e., rules whose interface graphs are made of disconnected nodes and edges only. It is proved that, under reasonable assumptions, rewriting via disconnected rules enjoys similar concurrency properties like in the classical approach.
Doctrines Whose Structure Forms A Fully Faithful Adjoint String
 Theory Appl. Categ
, 1997
"... . We pursue the definition of a KZdoctrine in terms of a fully faithful adjoint string Dd a m a dD. We give the definition in any Graycategory. The concept of algebra is given as an adjunction with invertible counit. We show that these doctrines are instances of more general pseudomonads. The alge ..."
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Cited by 16 (5 self)
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. We pursue the definition of a KZdoctrine in terms of a fully faithful adjoint string Dd a m a dD. We give the definition in any Graycategory. The concept of algebra is given as an adjunction with invertible counit. We show that these doctrines are instances of more general pseudomonads. The algebras for a pseudomonad are defined in more familiar terms and shown to be the same as the ones defined as adjunctions when we start with a KZdoctrine. 1. Introduction Free cocompletions of categories under suitable classes of colimits were the motivating examples for the definition of KZdoctrines. We introduce in this paper a notstrict version of such doctrines defined via a fully faithful adjoint string. Thus, a nonstrict KZdoctrine on a 2category K consists of a normal endo homomorphism D : K \Gamma! K, and strong transformations d : 1K \Gamma! D, and m : DD \Gamma! D in such a way that Dd a m a dD forms a fully faithful adjoint string, satisfying one equation involving the unit of...
From Coherent Structures to Universal Properties
 J. Pure Appl. Algebra
, 1999
"... Given a 2category K admitting a calculus of bimodules, and a 2monad T on it compatible with such calculus, we construct a 2category L with a 2monad S on it such that: • S has the adjointpseudoalgebra property. • The 2categories of pseudoalgebras of S and T are equivalent. Thus, coh ..."
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Cited by 13 (2 self)
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Given a 2category K admitting a calculus of bimodules, and a 2monad T on it compatible with such calculus, we construct a 2category L with a 2monad S on it such that: • S has the adjointpseudoalgebra property. • The 2categories of pseudoalgebras of S and T are equivalent. Thus, coherent structures (pseudoTalgebras) are transformed into universally characterised ones (adjointpseudoSalgebras). The 2category L consists of lax algebras for the pseudomonad induced by T on the bicategory of bimodules of K. We give an intrinsic characterisation of pseudoSalgebras in terms of representability. Two major consequences of the above transformation are the classifications of lax and strong morphisms, with the attendant coherence result for pseudoalgebras. We apply the theory in the context of internal categories and examine monoidal and monoidal globular categories (including their monoid classifiers) as well as pseudofunctors into Cat.