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Defining the Turing Jump
 MATHEMATICAL RESEARCH LETTERS
, 1999
"... The primary notion of effective computability is that provided by Turing machines (or equivalently any of the other common models of computation). We denote the partial function computed by the eth Turing machine in some standard list by # e . When these machines are equipped with an "oracle" for a ..."
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The primary notion of effective computability is that provided by Turing machines (or equivalently any of the other common models of computation). We denote the partial function computed by the eth Turing machine in some standard list by # e . When these machines are equipped with an "oracle" for a subset A of the natural numbers #, i.e. an external procedure that answers questions of the form "is n in A", they define the basic notion of relative computability or Turing reducibility (from Turing (1939)). We say that A is computable from (or recursive in) B if there is a Turing machine which, when equipped with an oracle for B, computes (the characteristic function of) A, i.e. for some e, # B e = A. We denote this relation by A # T<F10
The recursively enumerable degrees
 in Handbook of Computability Theory, Studies in Logic and the Foundations of Mathematics 140
, 1996
"... ..."
A Splitting Theorem for nREA Degrees
"... We prove that, for any D, A and U with D > T A # U and r.e. in A# U , there are pairs X 0 , X 1 and Y 0 , Y 1 such that D # T X 0 #X 1 ; D # T Y 0 # Y 1 ; and, for any i and j from {0, 1} and any set B, if X i #A # T B and Y j # A # T B then A # T B. We then deduce that for any degrees d, a, and b s ..."
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We prove that, for any D, A and U with D > T A # U and r.e. in A# U , there are pairs X 0 , X 1 and Y 0 , Y 1 such that D # T X 0 #X 1 ; D # T Y 0 # Y 1 ; and, for any i and j from {0, 1} and any set B, if X i #A # T B and Y j # A # T B then A # T B. We then deduce that for any degrees d, a, and b such that a and b are recursive in d, a ## T b, and d is nREA in to a, d can be split over a avoiding b. This shows that the Main Theorem of Cooper [1990] and [1993] is false.
Completing Pseudojump Operators
 ANN. PURE AND APPL. LOGIC
, 1999
"... We investigate operators which take a set X to a set relatively computably enumerable in and above X by studying which such sets X can be so mapped into the Turing degree of K. We introduce notions of nontriviality for such operators, and use these to study which additional properties can be req ..."
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We investigate operators which take a set X to a set relatively computably enumerable in and above X by studying which such sets X can be so mapped into the Turing degree of K. We introduce notions of nontriviality for such operators, and use these to study which additional properties can be required of sets which can be completed to the jump in this way by given operators.
Conjectures and Questions from Gerald Sacks’s Degrees of Unsolvability
 Archive for Mathematical Logic
, 1993
"... We describe the important role that the conjectures and questions posed at the end of the two editions of Gerald Sacks's Degrees of Unsolvability have had in the development of recursion theory over the past thirty years. Gerald Sacks has had a major influence on the development of logic, particular ..."
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We describe the important role that the conjectures and questions posed at the end of the two editions of Gerald Sacks's Degrees of Unsolvability have had in the development of recursion theory over the past thirty years. Gerald Sacks has had a major influence on the development of logic, particularly recursion theory, over the past thirty years through his research, writing and teaching. Here, I would like to concentrate on just one instance of that influence that I feel has been of special significance to the study of the degrees of unsolvability in general and on my own work in particular the conjectures and questions posed at the end of the two editions of Sacks's first book, the classic monograph Degrees of Unsolvability (Annals
Global Properties of the Turing Degrees and the Turing Jump
"... We present a summary of the lectures delivered to the Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Singapore, during the 2005 Summer School in Mathematical Logic. The lectures covered topics on the global structure of the Turing degrees D, the countability of its automorphism group, and the definability of ..."
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We present a summary of the lectures delivered to the Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Singapore, during the 2005 Summer School in Mathematical Logic. The lectures covered topics on the global structure of the Turing degrees D, the countability of its automorphism group, and the definability of the Turing jump within D.
Relative Enumerability in the Difference Hierarchy
 J. Symb. Logic
"... We show that the intersection of the class of 2REA degrees with that of the #r.e. degrees consists precisely of the class of d.r.e. degrees. We also include some applications and show that there is no natural generalization of this result to higher levels of the REA hierarchy. 1 Introduction The ..."
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We show that the intersection of the class of 2REA degrees with that of the #r.e. degrees consists precisely of the class of d.r.e. degrees. We also include some applications and show that there is no natural generalization of this result to higher levels of the REA hierarchy. 1 Introduction The # 0 2 degrees of unsolvability are basic objects of study in classical recursion theory, since they are the degrees of those sets whose characteristic functions are limits of recursive functions. A natural tool for understanding the Turing degrees is the introduction of hierarchies to classify various kinds of complexity. Because of its coarseness, the most common such hierarchy, the arithmetical hierarchy, is itself not of much use in the classification of the # 0 2 degrees. This fact leads naturally to the consideration of hierarchies based on finer distinctions than quantifier alternation. Two such hierarchies are by now well established. One, the REA hierarchy defined by Jockusch and S...
Generalized high degrees have the complementation property
 Journal of Symbolic Logic
"... Abstract. We show that if d ∈ GH1 then D( ≤ d) has the complementation property, i.e. for all a < d there is some b < d such that a ∧ b = 0 and a ∨ b = d. §1. Introduction. A major theme in the investigation of the structure of the Turing degrees, (D, ≤T), has been the relationship between the order ..."
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Abstract. We show that if d ∈ GH1 then D( ≤ d) has the complementation property, i.e. for all a < d there is some b < d such that a ∧ b = 0 and a ∨ b = d. §1. Introduction. A major theme in the investigation of the structure of the Turing degrees, (D, ≤T), has been the relationship between the order theoretic properties of a degree and its complexity of definition in arithmetic as expressed by the Turing jump operator which embodies a single step in the hierarchy of quantification. For example, there is a long history of results showing that 0 ′
Beyond Gödel's Theorem: Turing Nonrigidity Revisited
 In Logic Colloquium ’95
, 1998
"... xperience, but simply as irreducible points comparable, epistemologically, to the gods of Homer.") Of course, the theory itself does indicate di#culties in substantiating the Turing model, but, if not overstretched (viz. the ubiquitous Godel's [15], [16] Theorem) such asymptotic representations can ..."
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xperience, but simply as irreducible points comparable, epistemologically, to the gods of Homer.") Of course, the theory itself does indicate di#culties in substantiating the Turing model, but, if not overstretched (viz. the ubiquitous Godel's [15], [16] Theorem) such asymptotic representations can be useful and productive adjuncts to subjective intuition. For instance, unlike in mathematics where small variations in axioms can lead to fundamentally di#erent theories, Turing nonrigidity and known countable automorphism bases indicate that although diverse basic assumptions about the real world, related to culture or religion, for example, are inevitable (perhaps even necessary), relative to the Turing model there is a convergence at higher levels of the informational structure suggested by relative rigidity of substructures. The purpose of this note is to describe how, at a more basic level, the material Universe can be modelled according to the underlying structure of
Definability and Global Degree Theory
 Logic Colloquium '90, Association of Symbolic Logic Summer Meeting in Helsinki, Berlin 1993 [Lecture Notes in Logic 2
"... Gödel's work [Gö34] on undecidable theories and the subsequent formalisations of the notion of a recursive function ([Tu36], [K136] etc.) have led to an ever deepening understanding of the nature of the noncomputable universe (which as Gödel himself showed, includes sets and functions of everyday s ..."
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Gödel's work [Gö34] on undecidable theories and the subsequent formalisations of the notion of a recursive function ([Tu36], [K136] etc.) have led to an ever deepening understanding of the nature of the noncomputable universe (which as Gödel himself showed, includes sets and functions of everyday significance). The nontrivial aspect of Church's Thesis (any function not contained within one of the equivalent definitions of recursive/Turing computable, cannot be considered to be effectively computable) still provides a basis not only for classical and generalised recursion theory, but also for contemporary theoretical computer science. Recent years, in parallel with the massive increase in interest in the computable universe and the development of much subtler concepts of 'practically computable', have seen remarkable progress with some of the most basic and challenging questions concerning the noncomputable universe, results both of philosophical significance and of potentially wider technical importance. Relativising Church's Thesis, Kleene and Post [KP54] proposed the now