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52
Approximating the Minimum Spanning Tree Weight in Sublinear Time
 In Proceedings of the 28th Annual International Colloquium on Automata, Languages and Programming (ICALP
, 2001
"... We present a probabilistic algorithm that, given a connected graph G (represented by adjacency lists) of average degree d, with edge weights in the set {1,...,w}, and given a parameter 0 < ε < 1/2, estimates in time O(dwε−2 log dw ε) the weight of the minimum spanning tree of G with a relativ ..."
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Cited by 46 (6 self)
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We present a probabilistic algorithm that, given a connected graph G (represented by adjacency lists) of average degree d, with edge weights in the set {1,...,w}, and given a parameter 0 < ε < 1/2, estimates in time O(dwε−2 log dw ε) the weight of the minimum spanning tree of G with a relative error of at most ε. Note that the running time does not depend on the number of vertices in G. We also prove a nearly matching lower bound of Ω(dwε−2) on the probe and time complexity of any approximation algorithm for MST weight. The essential component of our algorithm is a procedure for estimating in time O(dε−2 log d ε) the number of connected components of an unweighted graph to within an additive error of εn. (This becomes O(ε−2 log 1 ε) for d = O(1).) The time bound is shown to be tight up to within the log d ε factor. Our connectedcomponents algorithm picks O(1/ε2) vertices in the graph and then grows “local spanning trees” whose sizes are specified by a stochastic process. From the local information collected in this way, the algorithm is able to infer, with high confidence, an estimate of the number of connected components. We then show how estimates on the number of components in various subgraphs of G can be used to estimate the weight of its MST. 1
A New Approach to AllPairs Shortest Paths on RealWeighted Graphs
 Theoretical Computer Science
, 2003
"... We present a new allpairs shortest path algorithm that works with realweighted graphs in the traditional comparisonaddition model. It runs in O(mn+n time, improving on the longstanding bound of O(mn + n log n) derived from an implementation of Dijkstra's algorithm with Fibonacci heaps ..."
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Cited by 36 (3 self)
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We present a new allpairs shortest path algorithm that works with realweighted graphs in the traditional comparisonaddition model. It runs in O(mn+n time, improving on the longstanding bound of O(mn + n log n) derived from an implementation of Dijkstra's algorithm with Fibonacci heaps. Here m and n are the number of edges and vertices, respectively.
LinearTime PointerMachine Algorithms for Least Common Ancestors, MST Verification, and Dominators
 IN PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRTIETH ANNUAL ACM SYMPOSIUM ON THEORY OF COMPUTING
, 1998
"... We present two new data structure toolsdisjoint set union with bottomup linking, and pointerbased radix sortand combine them with bottomlevel microtrees to devise the first lineartime pointermachine algorithms for offline least common ancestors, minimum spanning tree (MST) verification, ..."
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Cited by 29 (4 self)
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We present two new data structure toolsdisjoint set union with bottomup linking, and pointerbased radix sortand combine them with bottomlevel microtrees to devise the first lineartime pointermachine algorithms for offline least common ancestors, minimum spanning tree (MST) verification, randomized MST construction, and computing dominators in a flowgraph.
Distributed Verification of Minimum Spanning Trees
 Proc. 25th Annual Symposium on Principles of Distributed Computing
, 2006
"... The problem of verifying a Minimum Spanning Tree (MST) was introduced by Tarjan in a sequential setting. Given a graph and a tree that spans it, the algorithm is required to check whether this tree is an MST. This paper investigates the problem in the distributed setting, where the input is given in ..."
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Cited by 27 (23 self)
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The problem of verifying a Minimum Spanning Tree (MST) was introduced by Tarjan in a sequential setting. Given a graph and a tree that spans it, the algorithm is required to check whether this tree is an MST. This paper investigates the problem in the distributed setting, where the input is given in a distributed manner, i.e., every node “knows ” which of its own emanating edges belong to the tree. Informally, the distributed MST verification problem is the following. Label the vertices of the graph in such a way that for every node, given (its own label and) the labels of its neighbors only, the node can detect whether these edges are indeed its MST edges. In this paper we present such a verification scheme with a maximum label size of O(log n log W), where n is the number of nodes and W is the largest weight of an edge. We also give a matching lower bound of Ω(log n log W) (except when W ≤ log n). Both our bounds improve previously known bounds for the problem. Our techniques (both for the lower bound and for the upper bound) may indicate a strong relation between the fields of proof labeling schemes and implicit labeling schemes. For the related problem of tree sensitivity also presented by Tarjan, our method yields rather efficient schemes for both the distributed and the sequential settings.
Concurrent Threads and Optimal Parallel Minimum Spanning Trees Algorithm
 J. ACM
, 2001
"... This paper resolves a longstanding open problem on whether the concurrent write capability of parallel random access machine (PRAM) is essential for solving fundamental graph problems like connected components and minimum spanning trees in O(log n) time. Specically, we present a new algorithm to so ..."
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Cited by 24 (2 self)
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This paper resolves a longstanding open problem on whether the concurrent write capability of parallel random access machine (PRAM) is essential for solving fundamental graph problems like connected components and minimum spanning trees in O(log n) time. Specically, we present a new algorithm to solve these problems in O(log n) time using a linear number of processors on the exclusiveread exclusivewrite PRAM. The logarithmic time bound is actually optimal since it is well known that even computing the \OR" of n bits
Estimating the weight of metric minimum spanning trees in sublineartime
 in Proceedings of the 36th Annual ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing (STOC
"... In this paper we present a sublinear time (1+ ɛ)approximation randomized algorithm to estimate the weight of the minimum spanning tree of an npoint metric space. The running time of the algorithm is Õ(n/ɛO(1)). Since the full description of an npoint metric space is of size Θ(n 2),the complexity ..."
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Cited by 19 (5 self)
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In this paper we present a sublinear time (1+ ɛ)approximation randomized algorithm to estimate the weight of the minimum spanning tree of an npoint metric space. The running time of the algorithm is Õ(n/ɛO(1)). Since the full description of an npoint metric space is of size Θ(n 2),the complexity of our algorithm is sublinear with respect to the input size. Our algorithm is almost optimal as it is not possible to approximate in o(n) time the weight of the minimum spanning tree to within any factor. Furthermore,it has been previously shown that no o(n 2) algorithm exists that returns a spanning tree whose weight is within a constant times the optimum.
A shortest path algorithm for realweighted undirected graphs
 in 13th ACMSIAM Symp. on Discrete Algs
, 1985
"... Abstract. We present a new scheme for computing shortest paths on realweighted undirected graphs in the fundamental comparisonaddition model. In an efficient preprocessing phase our algorithm creates a linearsize structure that facilitates singlesource shortest path computations in O(m log α) ti ..."
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Cited by 12 (3 self)
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Abstract. We present a new scheme for computing shortest paths on realweighted undirected graphs in the fundamental comparisonaddition model. In an efficient preprocessing phase our algorithm creates a linearsize structure that facilitates singlesource shortest path computations in O(m log α) time, where α = α(m, n) is the very slowly growing inverseAckermann function, m the number of edges, and n the number of vertices. As special cases our algorithm implies new bounds on both the allpairs and singlesource shortest paths problems. We solve the allpairs problem in O(mnlog α(m, n)) time and, if the ratio between the maximum and minimum edge lengths is bounded by n (log n)O(1) , we can solve the singlesource problem in O(m + nlog log n) time. Both these results are theoretical improvements over Dijkstra’s algorithm, which was the previous best for real weighted undirected graphs. Our algorithm takes the hierarchybased approach invented by Thorup. Key words. singlesource shortest paths, allpairs shortest paths, undirected graphs, Dijkstra’s
Experimental Evaluation of a New Shortest Path Algorithm (Extended Abstract)
, 2002
"... We evaluate the practical eciency of a new shortest path algorithm for undirected graphs which was developed by the rst two authors. This algorithm works on the fundamental comparisonaddition model. Theoretically, this new algorithm outperforms Dijkstra's algorithm on sparse graphs for t ..."
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Cited by 12 (4 self)
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We evaluate the practical eciency of a new shortest path algorithm for undirected graphs which was developed by the rst two authors. This algorithm works on the fundamental comparisonaddition model. Theoretically, this new algorithm outperforms Dijkstra's algorithm on sparse graphs for the allpairs shortest path problem, and more generally, for the problem of computing singlesource shortest paths from !(1) different sources. Our extensive experimental analysis demonstrates that this is also the case in practice. We present results which show the new algorithm to run faster than Dijkstra's on a variety of sparse graphs when the number of vertices ranges from a few thousand to a few million, and when computing singlesource shortest paths from as few as three different sources.
A Practical Minimum Spanning Tree Algorithm Using the Cycle Property
 IN 11TH EUROPEAN SYMPOSIUM ON ALGORITHMS (ESA), NUMBER 2832 IN LNCS
, 2003
"... We present a simple new (randomized) algorithm for computing minimum spanning trees that is more than two times faster than the best previously known algorithms (for dense, "difficult" inputs). It is of conceptual interest that the algorithm uses the property that the heaviest edge in a cy ..."
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Cited by 11 (3 self)
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We present a simple new (randomized) algorithm for computing minimum spanning trees that is more than two times faster than the best previously known algorithms (for dense, "difficult" inputs). It is of conceptual interest that the algorithm uses the property that the heaviest edge in a cycle can be discarded. Previously this has only been exploited in asymptotically optimal algorithms that are considered impractical. An additional advantage is...
Optimal incremental sorting
 In Proc. 8th Workshop on Algorithm Engineering and Experiments (ALENEX
, 2006
"... Let A be a set of size m. Obtaining the first k ≤ m elements of A in ascending order can be done in optimal O(m+k log k) time. We present an algorithm (online on k) which incrementally gives the next smallest element of the set, so that the first k elements are obtained in optimal time for any k. We ..."
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Cited by 9 (5 self)
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Let A be a set of size m. Obtaining the first k ≤ m elements of A in ascending order can be done in optimal O(m+k log k) time. We present an algorithm (online on k) which incrementally gives the next smallest element of the set, so that the first k elements are obtained in optimal time for any k. We also give a practical algorithm with the same complexity on average, which improves in practice the existing online algorithm. As a direct application, we use our technique to implement Kruskal’s Minimum Spanning Tree algorithm, where our solution is competitive with the best current implementations. We finally show that our technique can be applied to several other problems, such as obtaining an interval of the sorted sequence and implementing heaps. 1