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Intuitive Control of a Planar Bipedal Walking Robot
 Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation
, 1998
"... Bipedal robots are difficult to analyze mathematically. However, successful control strategies can be discovered using simple physical intuition and can be described in simple terms. Five things have to happen for a planar bipedal robot to walk. Height has to be stabilized. Pitch has to be stabilize ..."
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Cited by 75 (7 self)
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Bipedal robots are difficult to analyze mathematically. However, successful control strategies can be discovered using simple physical intuition and can be described in simple terms. Five things have to happen for a planar bipedal robot to walk. Height has to be stabilized. Pitch has to be stabilized. Speed has to be stabilized. The swing leg has to move so that the feet are in locations which allow for the stability of height, pitch, and speed. Finally, transitions from support leg to support leg must occur at appropriate times. If these five objectives are achieved, the robot will walk. A number of different intuitive control strategies can be used to achieve each of these five objectives. Further, each strategy can be implemented in a variety of ways. We present several strategies for each objective which we have implemented on a bipedal walking robot. Using these simple intuitive strategies, we have compelled a seven link planar bipedal robot, called Spring Flamingo, to walk. The r...
Exploiting Inherent Robustness and Natural Dynamics in the Control of Bipedal Walking Robots
, 2000
"... Walking is an easy task for most humans and animals. Two characteristics which make it easy are the inherent robustness (tolerance to variation) of the walking problem and the natural dynamics of the walking mechanism. In this thesis we show how understanding and exploiting these two characteristics ..."
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Cited by 66 (5 self)
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Walking is an easy task for most humans and animals. Two characteristics which make it easy are the inherent robustness (tolerance to variation) of the walking problem and the natural dynamics of the walking mechanism. In this thesis we show how understanding and exploiting these two characteristics can aid in the control of bipedal robots. Inherent robustness allows for the use of simple, low impedance controllers. Natural dynamics reduces the requirements of the controller. We present a series of simple physical models of bipedal walking. The insight gained from these models is used in the development of three planar (motion only in the sagittal plane) control algorithms. The first uses simple strategies to control the robot to walk. The second exploits the natural dynamics of a kneecap, compliant ankle, and passive swingleg. The third achieves fast swing of the swingleg in order to enable the robot to walk quickly (1.25 m s ). These algorithms are implemented on Spring Flamingo...
Programmable central pattern generators: an application to biped locomotion control
 in Proccedings of the 2006 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation
, 2006
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A realtime pattern generator for biped walking
, 2002
"... For realtime walking control of a biped robot, we analyze the dynamics of a threedimensional inverted pendulum whose motions are constrained onto an arbitrarily defined plane. This analysis leads us a simple linear dynamics, the ThreeDimensional Linear Inverted Pendulum Mode (3DLIPM). Geometric n ..."
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Cited by 45 (6 self)
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For realtime walking control of a biped robot, we analyze the dynamics of a threedimensional inverted pendulum whose motions are constrained onto an arbitrarily defined plane. This analysis leads us a simple linear dynamics, the ThreeDimensional Linear Inverted Pendulum Mode (3DLIPM). Geometric nature of trajectories under the 3DLIPM is discussed, and an algorithm for walking pattern generation is presented. Experimental results of realtime walking control of a 12 d.o.f. biped robot HRP2L using an input device such as a game pad are also shown. 1
SYNTHESIS AND CONTROL OF WHOLEBODY BEHAVIORS IN HUMANOID SYSTEMS
, 2007
"... A great challenge for robotic systems is their ability to carry on complex manipulation and locomotion tasks while responding to the changing environment. To allow robots to operate in human environments there is a strong need to develop new control architectures that can provide advanced task cap ..."
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Cited by 45 (9 self)
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A great challenge for robotic systems is their ability to carry on complex manipulation and locomotion tasks while responding to the changing environment. To allow robots to operate in human environments there is a strong need to develop new control architectures that can provide advanced task capabilities and interactive skills. These architectures must be effective in coordinating wholebody behaviors for various control objectives while complying with balance stability, contact stance, and other dynamic constraints. In addition, to facilitate the integration of robots in human environments, it is desirable for their motions and task behaviors to be compatible with those of humans. In this thesis, we present a control methodology for the synthesis of realtime wholebody control behaviors in humanoid systems. The work is presented in three parts. First, we establish mathematical foundations that characterize the kinematic and dynamic behaviors of task and postural criteria under balance and contact stability constraints. We identify the dynamic behavior of postural tasks operating in the null space of operational
Exploiting natural dynamics in the control of a 3d bipedal walking simulation
 Proceedings of the International Conference on Climbing and Walking Robots (CLAWAR99
, 1999
"... www.ai.mit.edu/projects/leglab Natural dynamics can be exploited in the control of bipedal walking robots: the swing leg can swing passively; a kneecap can prevent the leg from inverting; and a compliant ankle can naturally transfer the center of pressure along the foot and help in toe o. These mech ..."
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Cited by 42 (2 self)
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www.ai.mit.edu/projects/leglab Natural dynamics can be exploited in the control of bipedal walking robots: the swing leg can swing passively; a kneecap can prevent the leg from inverting; and a compliant ankle can naturally transfer the center of pressure along the foot and help in toe o. These mechanisms simplify control and result in motion that is smooth and natural looking. We describe a computationally ecient algorithm which exploits these natural mechanisms. This algorithm is an extension to one for planar walking [16]. Lateral stability is controlled via foot placement and ankle torque. We present results for a seven link, twelve degree of freedom, biped simulation which walks on flat ground. 1
Exploiting Natural Dynamics in the Control of a Planar Bipedal Walking Robot
 In Proceedings of the 36th Annual Allerton Conference on Communication, Control and Computing
"... Natural dynamics can be exploited in the control of bipedal walking robots: the swing leg can swing freely once started; a kneecap can be used to prevent the leg from inverting; and a compliant ankle can be used to naturally transfer the center of pressure along the foot and help in toe o#. Each of ..."
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Cited by 41 (2 self)
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Natural dynamics can be exploited in the control of bipedal walking robots: the swing leg can swing freely once started; a kneecap can be used to prevent the leg from inverting; and a compliant ankle can be used to naturally transfer the center of pressure along the foot and help in toe o#. Each of these mechanisms helps make control easier to achieve and results in motion that is smooth and natural looking. We describe a simple control algorithm using these natural mechanisms which requires very little computation. The necessary sensing consists of joint angles and velocities, body pitch and angular velocity, and ground reaction forces. Using this simple algorithm, we have controlled a seven link planar bipedal robot, called Spring Flamingo, to walk. Video, photographs, and more information on Spring Flamingo can be found at http://www.leglab.ai.mit.edu 1 Introduction A powerful practice in machine design and control is to design mechanisms which have natural dynamics that make contr...
Approximating the Stance Map of a 2 DOF Monoped Runner
, 2000
"... Approximating the Stance Map of a 2 DOF Monoped Runner We report in this paper a relatively simple means of generating closedform approximants to the return map associated with a family of nonintegrable Hamiltonian systems. These systems arise in consideration of legged locomotion by animals and ro ..."
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Cited by 38 (11 self)
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Approximating the Stance Map of a 2 DOF Monoped Runner We report in this paper a relatively simple means of generating closedform approximants to the return map associated with a family of nonintegrable Hamiltonian systems. These systems arise in consideration of legged locomotion by animals and robots. The approximations proceed through the iterated application of the mean value theorem for integral operators applied to a nonintegrable perturbation of the system of interest. Both the accuracy of these approximants and their algebraic intractability grow in a relatively controlled manner.
Insect designs for improved robot mobility
 Proceedings of 4 th Int. Conf. On Climbing and Walking Robots (CLAWAR), From Biology to Industrial Applications, edited by K. Berns and R. Dillmann, Professional Engineering Publishing
, 2001
"... This paper reviews work performed in the Biorobotics Lab at Case Western Reserve University. Our goal is to use intelligent biological inspiration to develop robots with mobility approaching that of legged animals. We have produced a series of robots that have mobility increasingly more similar to t ..."
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Cited by 33 (6 self)
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This paper reviews work performed in the Biorobotics Lab at Case Western Reserve University. Our goal is to use intelligent biological inspiration to develop robots with mobility approaching that of legged animals. We have produced a series of robots that have mobility increasingly more similar to that of cockroach. Some of our other projects use more simplified designs and benefit from more abstract biological principles. A new robot uses one drive motor and its gait changes passively so that it walks at high speed in a tripod gait and climbs obstacles with its legs inphase. 1
Simulation of an Autonomous Biped Walking Robot Including Environmental Force Interaction
 IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine
, 1998
"... This autonomous biped walking control system is based on the reactive force interaction at the foothold. The precise 3D (three dimensional) dynamic simulation presented includes: 1) a posture controller which accommodate the physical constraints of the reactive force/torque on the foot by quadratic ..."
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Cited by 30 (1 self)
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This autonomous biped walking control system is based on the reactive force interaction at the foothold. The precise 3D (three dimensional) dynamic simulation presented includes: 1) a posture controller which accommodate the physical constraints of the reactive force/torque on the foot by quadratic programming. 2) a realtime COM (center of mass) tracking controller for foot placement, with a discrete inverted pendulum model. 3) a 3D dynamic simulation scheme with precise contact with the environment. The proposed approach realizes the robust biped locomotion because the environmental interaction is directly controlled. The proposed method is applied to the 20 axes simulation model, and the stable biped locomotion with velocity of 0.25 m/sec and stepping time of 0.5 sec/step is realized. I. Introduction A NUMBER OF biped walking systems have been proposed in the previous works[1][12]. Since the reactive force and torque on the foothold depend on its complicated characteristics, the...