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Towards Formal Structural Representation of Spoken Language: An Evolving Transformation System (ETS) Approach
, 2005
"... Speech recognition has been a very active area of research over the past twenty years. Despite an evident progress, it is generally agreed by the practitioners of the field that performance of the current speech recognition systems is rather suboptimal and new approaches are needed. The motivation ..."
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Speech recognition has been a very active area of research over the past twenty years. Despite an evident progress, it is generally agreed by the practitioners of the field that performance of the current speech recognition systems is rather suboptimal and new approaches are needed. The motivation behind the undertaken research is an observation that the notion of representation of objects and concepts that once was considered to be central in the early days of pattern recognition, has been largely marginalised by the advent of statistical approaches. As a consequence of a predominantly statistical approach to speech recognition problem, due to the numeric, feature vectorbased, nature of representation, the classes inductively discovered from real data using decisiontheoretic techniques have little meaning outside the statistical framework. This is because decision surfaces or probability distributions are difficult to analyse linguistically. Because of the later limitation it is doubtful that the gap between speech recognition and linguistic research can be bridged by the numeric representations. This thesis investigates an alternative, structural, approach to spoken language representation and categorisa
Mercury’s Perihelion
, 2003
"... lations based on Newton’s theory of gravitation, pinpointed the position of a mass that was perturbing Uranus ’ orbit. When fellow astronomers aimed their telescopes at his location, they recognized, for the first time, the eighth planet. Newton’s theory had reached its zenith. Shortly after, howev ..."
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lations based on Newton’s theory of gravitation, pinpointed the position of a mass that was perturbing Uranus ’ orbit. When fellow astronomers aimed their telescopes at his location, they recognized, for the first time, the eighth planet. Newton’s theory had reached its zenith. Shortly after, however, it became clear
Relativity, Dimensionality, and Existence
"... Since the [relativity] postulate comes to mean that only the fourdimensional world in space and time is given by phenomena, but that the projection in space and in time may still be undertaken with a certain degree of freedom, I prefer to call it the postulate of the absolute world. H. Minkowski [1 ..."
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Since the [relativity] postulate comes to mean that only the fourdimensional world in space and time is given by phenomena, but that the projection in space and in time may still be undertaken with a certain degree of freedom, I prefer to call it the postulate of the absolute world. H. Minkowski [1, p. 83] The basic idea is to present the essentials of relativity from the Minkowskian point of view, that is, in terms of the geometry of spacetime... because it is to me (and I think to many others) the key which unlocks many mysteries. My ambition has been to make spacetime a real workshop for physicists, and not a museum visited occasionally with a feeling of awe. J. L. Synge [2, p. vii] 1
Optimality of Dimension Expanding ShannonKotel’nikov Mappings
"... Abstract — ShannonKotel’nikov mappings are joint sourcechannel coding (JSCC) systems, realized as direct sourcechannel mappings. In this paper we show that dimension expanding ShannonKotel’nikov mappings can get as close as we want to the information theoretical bounds (OPTA) by letting the sour ..."
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Abstract — ShannonKotel’nikov mappings are joint sourcechannel coding (JSCC) systems, realized as direct sourcechannel mappings. In this paper we show that dimension expanding ShannonKotel’nikov mappings can get as close as we want to the information theoretical bounds (OPTA) by letting the source and channel dimension go towards infinity. We use our own generalization of Kotel’nikov’s theory on 1:N bandwidth expanding modulation systems, and the “sphere hardening ” effect (a consequence of the law of large numbers) for this purpose. At the end of the paper we give a rough estimate on how close one can get to OPTA for a given dimensionality. I.
On the Analysis of ShannonKotel’nikov Mappings
, 904
"... Abstract—In this paper an approach to joint sourcechannel coding (JSCC), named ShannonKotel’nikov mappings (SKmappings), is presented. SKmappings are (piecewise) continuous direct sourcetochannel mappings operating directly on amplitude continuous discrete time signals. A theory for calculating ..."
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Abstract—In this paper an approach to joint sourcechannel coding (JSCC), named ShannonKotel’nikov mappings (SKmappings), is presented. SKmappings are (piecewise) continuous direct sourcetochannel mappings operating directly on amplitude continuous discrete time signals. A theory for calculating and categorizing the endtoend distortion when using SKmappings for communication is presented. The theory presented is a generalization of Kotel’nikovs theory on 1:N bandwidth expanding modulation. The proposed theory is further used to show that SKmappings have the potential to reach the information theoretical bound OPTA (optimal performance theoretically attainable), by letting the dimensionality of the mappings go towards infinity. Index Terms—Joint sourcechannel coding, ShannonKotel’nikov mappings, analog information sources, OPTA, geometry, asymptotic analysis.
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"... Einstein’s physical geometry at play: inertial motion, the boostability assumption, the Lorentz transformations, and the socalled conventionality of the oneway speed of light. ..."
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Einstein’s physical geometry at play: inertial motion, the boostability assumption, the Lorentz transformations, and the socalled conventionality of the oneway speed of light.
1 The flow of time in the theory of relativity
"... Dennis Dieks advanced the view that the idea of flow of time is implemented in the theory of relativity. The ‘flow ’ results from the successive happening/becoming of events along the timelike worldline of a material system. This leads to a view of now as local to each worldline. Each past event of ..."
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Dennis Dieks advanced the view that the idea of flow of time is implemented in the theory of relativity. The ‘flow ’ results from the successive happening/becoming of events along the timelike worldline of a material system. This leads to a view of now as local to each worldline. Each past event of the worldline has occurred once as a nowpoint, and we take there to be an everchanging present nowpoint ‘marking ’ the unfolding of a physical system. In Dieks ’ approach there is no preferred worldline and only along each worldline is there a Newtonianlike linear order between successive nowpoints. We have a flow of time per worldline. Also there is no global temporal order of the nowpoints of different worldlines. There is, as much, what Dieks calls a partial order. However Dieks needs for a consistency reason to impose a limitation on the assignment of the nowpoints along different worldlines. In this work it is made the claim that Dieks ’ consistency requirement is, in fact, inbuilt in the theory as a spatial relation between physical systems and processes. Furthermore, in this work we will consider (very) particular cases of assignments of nowpoints restricted by this spatial relation, in which the nowpoints taken to be simultaneous are not relative to the adopted inertial reference frame.
MINIMAL AREA ELLIPSES IN THE HYPERBOLIC PLANE
"... Abstract. We present uniqueness results for enclosing ellipses of minimal area in the hyperbolic plane. Uniqueness can be guaranteed if the minimizers are sought among all ellipses with prescribed axes or center. In the general case, we present a sufficient and easily verifiable criterion on the enc ..."
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Abstract. We present uniqueness results for enclosing ellipses of minimal area in the hyperbolic plane. Uniqueness can be guaranteed if the minimizers are sought among all ellipses with prescribed axes or center. In the general case, we present a sufficient and easily verifiable criterion on the enclosed set that ensures uniqueness.