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K.: PMaude: Rewritebased specification language for probabilistic object systems
 ENTCS
, 2006
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Formal modeling and analysis of DoS using probabilistic rewrite theories
 in Proc. IEEE Workshop on Foundations of Computer Security
, 2005
"... Existing models for analyzing the integrity and confidentiality of protocols need to be extended to enable the analysis of availability. Prior work on such extensions shows promising applications to the development of new DoS countermeasures. Ideally it should be possible to apply these countermeasu ..."
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Cited by 14 (8 self)
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Existing models for analyzing the integrity and confidentiality of protocols need to be extended to enable the analysis of availability. Prior work on such extensions shows promising applications to the development of new DoS countermeasures. Ideally it should be possible to apply these countermeasures systematically in a way that preserves desirable properties already established. This paper investigates a step toward achieving this ideal by describing a way to expand term rewriting theories to include probabilistic aspects that can show the effectiveness of DoS countermeasures. In particular, we consider the shared channel model, in which adversaries and valid participants share communication bandwidth according to a probabilistic interleaving model, and a countermeasure known as selective verification applied to the handshake steps of the TCP reliable transport protocol. These concepts are formulated in a probabilistic extension of the Maude term rewriting system, called PMAUDE. Furthermore, we formally verified the desired properties of the countermeasures through automatic statistical modelchecking techniques. 1
A Rewriting Based Model for Probabilistic Distributed Object Systems
 In Proceedings of 6th IFIP International Conference on Formal Methods for Open Objectbased Distributed Systems (FMOODS’03), volume 2884 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science
, 2003
"... Concurrent and distributed systems have traditionally been modelled using nondeterministic transitions over configurations. The nondeterminism provides an abstraction over scheduling, network delays, failures and randomization. However a probabilistic model can capture these sources of nondeterm ..."
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Cited by 10 (6 self)
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Concurrent and distributed systems have traditionally been modelled using nondeterministic transitions over configurations. The nondeterminism provides an abstraction over scheduling, network delays, failures and randomization. However a probabilistic model can capture these sources of nondeterminism more precisely and enable statistical analysis, simulations and reasoning. We have developed a general semantic framework for probabilistic systems using probabilistic rewriting. Our framework also allows nondeterminism in the system. In this paper, we briefly describe the framework and its application to concurrent object based systems such as actors. We also identify a su#ciently expressive fragment of the general framework and describe its implementation. The concepts are illustrated by a simple clientserver example.
Executable Computational Logics: Combining Formal Methods and Programming Language Based System Design
 In Proc. First Int’l Conf. on Formal Methods and Models for Codesign 2003, IEEE CS
"... An executable computational logic can provide the desired bridge between formal system properties and formal methods to verify them on the one hand, and executable models of system designs based on programming languages on the other. However, not all such logics are equally well suited for the task. ..."
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Cited by 1 (0 self)
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An executable computational logic can provide the desired bridge between formal system properties and formal methods to verify them on the one hand, and executable models of system designs based on programming languages on the other. However, not all such logics are equally well suited for the task. This paper gives some requirements that seem important for a computational logic to be suitable in practice, and discusses the experience with rewriting logic, its Maude language implementation, and its formal tool environment, concluding that they seem to meet well those requirements. 1. The General Idea The present conference explores a convergence of formal methods and programming language based approaches to system design in both hardware and embedded hardwaresoftware systems. There are many practical benefits to be gained from such a convergence and, furthermore, there are important research issues involved. I wish to put forward a simple general idea that in my view provides a conceptual key to exploring a convergence of this kind. As suggested in the title, the idea is that an executable computational logic can provide the desired bridge between formal system properties and formal methods to verify them on the one hand, and executable models of system designs based on programming languages on the other. The general idea as such is hardly new: it has already been demonstrated very successfully by different researchers using different computational logics. There are
REWRITINGBASED FORMAL MODELING, ANALYSIS AND IMPLEMENTATION OF REALTIME DISTRIBUTED SERVICES
, 2011
"... The last decade has seen an explosive growth of both: (1) enterprise serviceoriented software systems, for managing enterprise resources and automating business processes, and (2) usercentric, cloudbased web applications, which provide richer experiences and more intelligent services to endusers ..."
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The last decade has seen an explosive growth of both: (1) enterprise serviceoriented software systems, for managing enterprise resources and automating business processes, and (2) usercentric, cloudbased web applications, which provide richer experiences and more intelligent services to endusers than traditional, monolithic applications. The adoption of systems that are based on Internetaccessible software components, a class of distributed software systems to which we simply refer as Internet software, is expected to grow tremendously in the future. Nevertheless, designing and developing dependable Internet software poses a unique set of challenges, making the already difficult issue of whether a deployed system meets its specification requirements even harder to address than for traditional software systems. In this dissertation, we develop formal specification, simulation, prototyping, and formal analysis techniques and tools for distributed software services, based on rewriting logic, the Maude system, and the theory of Orc, with the overall goal of improving the reliability of Internet software. The dissertation focuses on the formal specification and analysis of two fundamentally important aspects of Internet software systems: (1) the correctness of service
MULEbased Wireless Sensor Networks: Probabilistic Modeling and Quantitative Analysis
"... Abstract. Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) consist of resourceconstrained nodes; especially with respect to power. In most cases, the replacement of a dead node is difficult and costly. It is therefore crucial to minimize the total energy consumption of the network. Since the major consumer of power ..."
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Abstract. Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) consist of resourceconstrained nodes; especially with respect to power. In most cases, the replacement of a dead node is difficult and costly. It is therefore crucial to minimize the total energy consumption of the network. Since the major consumer of power in WSNs is the data transmission process, we consider nodes which cooperate for data transmission in terms of groups. A group has a leader which collects data from the members and communicates with the outside of the group. We propose and formalize a model for data collection in which mobile entities, called data MULEs, are used to move between group leaders and collect data messages using shortrange and lowpower data transmission. We combine declarative and operational modeling. The declarative model abstractly captures behavior without committing to specific transitions by means of probability distributions, whereas the operational model is given as a concrete transition system in rewriting logic. The probabilistic, declarative model is not used to select transition rules, but to stochastically capture the result of applying rules. Technically, we use probabilistic rewriting logic and embed our models into PMaude, which gives us a simulation engine for the combined models. We perform statistical quantitative analysis based on repeated discreteevent simulations in Maude. 1
On the Numerical Verification of Probabilistic Rewriting Systems
"... We present in this paper a technique for the formal verification of probabilistic systems described in PMAUDE, a probabilistic extension of the rewriting system Maude. Our methodology is based on a numerical verification using the probabilistic symbolic model checking tool PRISM. In particular, we ..."
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We present in this paper a technique for the formal verification of probabilistic systems described in PMAUDE, a probabilistic extension of the rewriting system Maude. Our methodology is based on a numerical verification using the probabilistic symbolic model checking tool PRISM. In particular, we show how we can construct an abstract system from the runs of a model that preserve all the probabilistic properties of the latter. Then we deduce the probabilistic matrix that will be used for the verification in PRISM. 1.
QAPL 2005 Preliminary Version PMaude: Rewritebased Specification Language for Probabilistic Object Systems
"... We introduce a rewritebased specification language for modelling probabilistic concurrent and distributed systems. The language, based on PMaude, has both a rigorous formal basis and the characteristics of a highlevel functional programming language. Furthermore, we provide tool support for perfor ..."
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We introduce a rewritebased specification language for modelling probabilistic concurrent and distributed systems. The language, based on PMaude, has both a rigorous formal basis and the characteristics of a highlevel functional programming language. Furthermore, we provide tool support for performing discreteevent simulations of models written in PMaude, and for statistically verifying formal properties of such models based on the samples that are generated through discreteevent simulation. Because distributed and concurrent communication protocols can be modelled using actors (concurrent objects with asynchronous message passing), we provide an actor PMaude module. The module aids writing specifications in a probabilistic actor formalism. This allows us to easily write specifications that are purely probabilistic – and not just nondeterministic. The absence of such (unquantified) nondeterminism in a probabilistic system is necessary for a form of statistical modelchecking of probabilistic temporal logic properties that we also discuss. 1
A Probabilistic Strategy Language for Probabilistic Rewrite Theories and its Application to Cloud Computing
, 2014
"... Abstract. Several formal models combine probabilistic and nondeterministic features. To allow their probabilistic simulation and statistical model checking by means of pseudorandom number sampling, all sources of nondeterminism must first be quantified. However, current tools offer limited flexibi ..."
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Abstract. Several formal models combine probabilistic and nondeterministic features. To allow their probabilistic simulation and statistical model checking by means of pseudorandom number sampling, all sources of nondeterminism must first be quantified. However, current tools offer limited flexibility for the user to define how the nondeterminism should be quantified. In this report we propose an expressive probabilistic strategy language that allows the user to define complex strategies for quantifying the nondeterminism in probabilistic rewrite theories. These strategies may depend on the current system state, and their associated weight expressions can be given by any computable function defined equationally in Maude. We have implemented PSMaude, a tool that extends Maude with a probabilistic simulator and a statistical model checker for our language. We illustrate the convenience of being able to define different probabilistic strategies by a cloud computing example, where a (nonprobabilistic) rewrite theory defines the capabilities of the cloud computing infrastructure, and where different load balancing policies are specified by different probabilistic strategies. Our language also enables a Maudebased safety/QoS modeling and analysis methodology in which key safety properties can be verified for a basic “uncluttered ” nonprobabilistic model, and where QoS properties for different probabilistic strategies can be analyzed by probabilistic simulation and statistical model checking. 1