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Drawing Planar Graphs Using the Canonical Ordering
 ALGORITHMICA
, 1996
"... We introduce a new method to optimize the required area, minimum angle and number of bends of planar drawings of graphs on a grid. The main tool is a new type of ordering on the vertices and faces of triconnected planar graphs. Using this method linear time and space algorithms can be designed for m ..."
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Cited by 65 (0 self)
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We introduce a new method to optimize the required area, minimum angle and number of bends of planar drawings of graphs on a grid. The main tool is a new type of ordering on the vertices and faces of triconnected planar graphs. Using this method linear time and space algorithms can be designed for many graph drawing problems.  Every triconnected planar graph G can be drawn convexly with straight lines on an (2n \Gamma 4) \Theta (n \Gamma 2) grid, where n is the number of vertices.  Every triconnected planar graph with maximum degree four can be drawn orthogonally on an n \Theta n grid with at most d 3n 2 e + 4, and if n ? 6 then every edge has at most two bends.  Every 3planar graph G can be drawn with at most b n 2 c + 1 bends on an b n 2 c \Theta b n 2 c grid.  Every triconnected planar graph G can be drawn planar on an (2n \Gamma 6) \Theta (3n \Gamma 9) grid with minimum angle larger than 2 d radians and at most 5n \Gamma 15 bends, with d the maximum d...
StraightLine Drawings on Restricted Integer Grids in Two and Three Dimensions (Extended Abstract)
, 2002
"... This paper investigates the following question: Given an integer grid phi, where phi is a proper subset of the integer plane or a proper subset of the integer 3d space, which graphs admit straightline crossingfree drawings with vertices located at the grid points of phi? We characterize the trees t ..."
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Cited by 38 (4 self)
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This paper investigates the following question: Given an integer grid phi, where phi is a proper subset of the integer plane or a proper subset of the integer 3d space, which graphs admit straightline crossingfree drawings with vertices located at the grid points of phi? We characterize the trees that can be drawn on a two dimensional c * n × k grid, where k and c are given integer constants, and on a two dimensional grid consisting of k parallel horizontal lines of infinite length. Motivated by the results on the plane we investigate restrictions of the integer grid in 3 dimensions and show that every outerplanar graph with n vertices can be drawn crossingfree with straight lines in linear volume on a grid called a prism. This prism consists of 3n integer grid points and is universal  it supports all outerplanar graphs of n vertices. This is the first algorithm that computes crossingfree straight line 3d drawings in linear volume for a nontrivial family of planar graphs. We also show that there exist planar graphs that cannot be drawn on the prism and that extension to a n × 2 × 2 integer grid, called a box, does not admit the entire class of planar graphs.
A Lineartime Algorithm for Drawing a Planar Graph on a Grid
 Information Processing Letters
, 1989
"... We present a lineartime algorithm that, given an nvertex planar graph G, finds an embedding of G into a (2n \Gamma 4) \Theta (n \Gamma 2) grid such that the edges of G are straightline segments. 1 Introduction We consider the problem of embedding the vertices of a planar graph into a small grid i ..."
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Cited by 37 (5 self)
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We present a lineartime algorithm that, given an nvertex planar graph G, finds an embedding of G into a (2n \Gamma 4) \Theta (n \Gamma 2) grid such that the edges of G are straightline segments. 1 Introduction We consider the problem of embedding the vertices of a planar graph into a small grid in the plane in such a way that the edges are straight, nonintersecting line segments. The existence of such straightline embeddings for planar graphs was independently discovered by F'ary [Fa48], Stein [St51], and Wagner [Wa36]; this result also follows from Steinitz's theorem on convex polytopes in three dimensions [SR34]. The first algorithms for constructing straightline embeddings [Tu63, CYN84, CON85] required highprecision arithmetic, and the resulting drawings were not very aesthetic, since they tend to produce uneven distributions of vertices over the drawing area. Rosenstiehl and Tarjan [RT86] noticed that it would be convenient to be able to map veritices of a planar graph into a...
MinimumWidth Grid Drawings of Plane Graphs
 Graph Drawing (Proc. GD '94), volume 894 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science
, 1995
"... Given a plane graph G, we wish to draw it in the plane in such a way that the vertices of G are represented as grid points, and the edges are represented as straightline segments between their endpoints. An additional objective is to minimize the size of the resulting grid. It is known that each pl ..."
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Cited by 31 (11 self)
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Given a plane graph G, we wish to draw it in the plane in such a way that the vertices of G are represented as grid points, and the edges are represented as straightline segments between their endpoints. An additional objective is to minimize the size of the resulting grid. It is known that each plane graph can be drawn in such a way in a (n \Gamma 2) \Theta (n \Gamma 2) grid (for n 3), and that no grid smaller than (2n=3 \Gamma 1) \Theta (2n=3 \Gamma 1) can be used for this purpose, if n is a multiple of 3. In fact, for all n 3, each dimension of the resulting grid needs to be at least b2(n \Gamma 1)=3c, even if the other one is allowed to be unbounded. In this paper we show that this bound is tight by presenting a grid drawing algorithm that produces drawings of width b2(n \Gamma 1)=3c. The height of the produced drawings is bounded by 4b2(n \Gamma 1)=3c \Gamma 1. Our algorithm runs in linear time and is easy to implement. 1 Introduction The problem of automatic graph drawing ha...
Convex Drawings of Graphs in Two and Three Dimensions
, 1996
"... We provide O(n)time algorithms for constructing the following types of drawings of nvertex 3connected planar graphs: ffl 2D convex grid drawings with (3n) × (3n/2) area under the edge L 1 resolution rule; ffl 2D strictly convex grid drawings with O(n³) × O(n³) area under the edge resolution ru ..."
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Cited by 29 (10 self)
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We provide O(n)time algorithms for constructing the following types of drawings of nvertex 3connected planar graphs: ffl 2D convex grid drawings with (3n) × (3n/2) area under the edge L 1 resolution rule; ffl 2D strictly convex grid drawings with O(n³) × O(n³) area under the edge resolution rule; ffl 2D strictly convex drawings with O(1) × O(n) area under the vertexresolution rule, and with vertex coordinates represented by O(n log n)bit rational numbers; ffl 3D convex drawings with O(1) × O(1) × O(n) volume under the vertexresolution rule, and with vertex coordinates represented by O(n log n)bit rational numbers. We also
On Simultaneous Planar Graph Embeddings
 COMPUT. GEOM
, 2003
"... We consider the problem of simultaneous embedding of planar graphs. There are two variants ..."
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Cited by 29 (9 self)
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We consider the problem of simultaneous embedding of planar graphs. There are two variants
Planar Polyline Drawings with Good Angular Resolution
 Graph Drawing (Proc. GD '98), volume 1547 of LNCS
, 1998
"... . We present a linear time algorithm that constructs a planar polyline grid drawing of any plane graph with n vertices and maximum degree d on a (2n \Gamma 5) \Theta ( 3 2 n \Gamma 7 2 ) grid with at most 5n \Gamma 15 bends and minimum angle ? 2 d . In the constructed drawings, every edge h ..."
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Cited by 22 (1 self)
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. We present a linear time algorithm that constructs a planar polyline grid drawing of any plane graph with n vertices and maximum degree d on a (2n \Gamma 5) \Theta ( 3 2 n \Gamma 7 2 ) grid with at most 5n \Gamma 15 bends and minimum angle ? 2 d . In the constructed drawings, every edge has at most three bends and length O(n). To our best knowledge, this algorithm achieves the best simultaneous bounds concerning the grid size, angular resolution, and number of bends for planar grid drawings of highdegree planar graphs. Besides the nice theoretical features, the practical drawings are aesthetically very pleasing. An implementation of our algorithm is available with the AGDLibrary (Algorithms for Graph Drawing) [2, 1]. Our algorithm is based on ideas by Kant for polyline grid drawings for triconnected plane graphs [23]. In particular, our algorithm significantly improves upon his bounds on the angular resolution and the grid size for nontriconnected plane graphs....
Strictly Convex Drawings of Planar Graphs
, 2004
"... Every threeconnected planar graph with n vertices has a drawing on an O(n7=3) \Theta O(n7=3) grid in which all faces are strictly convex polygons. ..."
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Cited by 18 (1 self)
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Every threeconnected planar graph with n vertices has a drawing on an O(n7=3) \Theta O(n7=3) grid in which all faces are strictly convex polygons.
Planar Drawings of Plane Graphs
, 2000
"... this paper first we review known two methods to find such drawings, then explain a hidden relation between them, and finally survey related results. ..."
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Cited by 13 (3 self)
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this paper first we review known two methods to find such drawings, then explain a hidden relation between them, and finally survey related results.
AGDLibrary: A Library of Algorithms for Graph Drawing
, 1997
"... A graph drawing algorithm produces a layout of a graph in two or threedimensional space that should be readable and easy to understand. Since the aesthetic criteria differ from one application area to another, it is unlikely that a definition of the "optimal drawing" of a graph in a strict math ..."
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Cited by 13 (5 self)
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A graph drawing algorithm produces a layout of a graph in two or threedimensional space that should be readable and easy to understand. Since the aesthetic criteria differ from one application area to another, it is unlikely that a definition of the "optimal drawing" of a graph in a strict mathematical sense exists. A large number of graph drawing algorithms taking different aesthetic criteria into account have already been proposed. In this paper we describe the design and implementation of the AGDLibrary, a library of Algorithms for Graph Drawing. The library offers a broad range of existing algorithms for twodimensional graph drawing and tools for implementing new algorithms. The library is written in C++ using the LEDA platform for combinatorial and geometric computing ([16, 17]). The algorithms are implemented independently of the underlying visualization or graphics system by using a generic layout interface. Most graph drawing algorithms place a set of restriction...