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231
Consensus and cooperation in networked multiagent systems
 PROCEEDINGS OF THE IEEE
"... This paper provides a theoretical framework for analysis of consensus algorithms for multiagent networked systems with an emphasis on the role of directed information flow, robustness to changes in network topology due to link/node failures, timedelays, and performance guarantees. An overview of ..."
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Cited by 772 (2 self)
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This paper provides a theoretical framework for analysis of consensus algorithms for multiagent networked systems with an emphasis on the role of directed information flow, robustness to changes in network topology due to link/node failures, timedelays, and performance guarantees. An overview of basic concepts of information consensus in networks and methods of convergence and performance analysis for the algorithms are provided. Our analysis framework is based on tools from matrix theory, algebraic graph theory, and control theory. We discuss the connections between consensus problems in networked dynamic systems and diverse applications including synchronization of coupled oscillators, flocking, formation control, fast consensus in smallworld networks, Markov processes and gossipbased algorithms, load balancing in networks, rendezvous in space, distributed sensor fusion in sensor networks, and belief propagation. We establish direct connections between spectral and structural properties of complex networks and the speed of information diffusion of consensus algorithms. A brief introduction is provided on networked systems with nonlocal information flow that are considerably faster than distributed systems with latticetype nearest neighbor interactions. Simulation results are presented that demonstrate the role of smallworld effects on the speed of consensus algorithms and cooperative control of multivehicle formations.
Information Consensus in Multivehicle Cooperative Control
, 2007
"... The abundance of embedded computational resources in autonomous vehicles enables enhanced operational effectiveness through cooperative teamwork in civilian and military applications. Compared to autonomous vehicles that perform solo missions, greater efficiency and operational capability can be rea ..."
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Cited by 228 (23 self)
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The abundance of embedded computational resources in autonomous vehicles enables enhanced operational effectiveness through cooperative teamwork in civilian and military applications. Compared to autonomous vehicles that perform solo missions, greater efficiency and operational capability can be realized from teams of autonomous vehicles operating in a coordinated fashion. Potential applications for multivehicle systems include spacebased interferometers, combat, surveillance, and reconnaissance systems, hazardous material handling, and distributed reconfigurable sensor networks. To enable these applications, various cooperative control capabilities need to be developed, including formation control, rendezvous, attitude alignment, flocking, foraging, task and role assign
Distributed average consensus with leastmeansquare deviation
 Journal of Parallel and Distributed Computing
, 2005
"... We consider a stochastic model for distributed average consensus, which arises in applications such as load balancing for parallel processors, distributed coordination of mobile autonomous agents, and network synchronization. In this model, each node updates its local variable with a weighted averag ..."
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Cited by 201 (5 self)
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We consider a stochastic model for distributed average consensus, which arises in applications such as load balancing for parallel processors, distributed coordination of mobile autonomous agents, and network synchronization. In this model, each node updates its local variable with a weighted average of its neighbors ’ values, and each new value is corrupted by an additive noise with zero mean. The quality of consensus can be measured by the total meansquare deviation of the individual variables from their average, which converges to a steadystate value. We consider the problem of finding the (symmetric) edge weights that result in the least meansquare deviation in steady state. We show that this problem can be cast as a convex optimization problem, so the global solution can be found efficiently. We describe some computational methods for solving this problem, and compare the weights and the meansquare deviations obtained by this method and several other weight design methods.
Quantized consensus
, 2007
"... We study the distributed averaging problem on arbitrary connected graphs, with the additional constraint that the value at each node is an integer. This discretized distributed averaging problem models several problems of interest, such as averaging in a network with finite capacity channels and loa ..."
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Cited by 150 (0 self)
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We study the distributed averaging problem on arbitrary connected graphs, with the additional constraint that the value at each node is an integer. This discretized distributed averaging problem models several problems of interest, such as averaging in a network with finite capacity channels and load balancing in a processor network. We describe simple randomized distributed algorithms which achieve consensus to the extent that the discrete nature of the problem permits. We give bounds on the convergence time of these algorithms for fully connected networks and linear networks.
Convergence speed in distributed consensus and averaging
 IN PROC. OF THE 45TH IEEE CDC
, 2006
"... We study the convergence speed of distributed iterative algorithms for the consensus and averaging problems, with emphasis on the latter. We first consider the case of a fixed communication topology. We show that a simple adaptation of a consensus algorithm leads to an averaging algorithm. We prove ..."
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Cited by 138 (4 self)
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We study the convergence speed of distributed iterative algorithms for the consensus and averaging problems, with emphasis on the latter. We first consider the case of a fixed communication topology. We show that a simple adaptation of a consensus algorithm leads to an averaging algorithm. We prove lower bounds on the worstcase convergence time for various classes of linear, timeinvariant, distributed consensus methods, and provide an algorithm that essentially matches those lower bounds. We then consider the case of a timevarying topology, and provide a polynomialtime averaging algorithm.
On Distributed Averaging Algorithms and Quantization Effects
, 2009
"... We consider distributed iterative algorithms for the averaging problem over timevarying topologies. Our focus is on the convergence time of such algorithms when complete (unquantized) information is available, and on the degradation of performance when only quantized information is available. We stu ..."
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Cited by 135 (24 self)
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We consider distributed iterative algorithms for the averaging problem over timevarying topologies. Our focus is on the convergence time of such algorithms when complete (unquantized) information is available, and on the degradation of performance when only quantized information is available. We study a large and natural class of averaging algorithms, which includes the vast majority of algorithms proposed to date, and provide tight polynomial bounds on their convergence time. We also describe an algorithm within this class whose convergence time is the best among currently available averaging algorithms for timevarying topologies. We then propose and analyze distributed averaging algorithms under the additional constraint that agents can only store and communicate quantized information, so that they can only converge to the average of the initial values of the agents within some error. We establish bounds on the error and tight bounds on the convergence time, as a function of the number of quantization levels.
Reaching a consensus in a dynamically changing environment { a graphical approach
 SIAM J. on Control and Optimization
"... This paper uses recently established properties of compositions of directed graphs together with results from the theory of nonhomogeneous Markov chains to derive worst case convergence rates for the headings of a group of mobile autonomous agents which arise in connection with the widely studied ..."
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Cited by 92 (9 self)
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This paper uses recently established properties of compositions of directed graphs together with results from the theory of nonhomogeneous Markov chains to derive worst case convergence rates for the headings of a group of mobile autonomous agents which arise in connection with the widely studied Vicsek consensus problem. The paper also uses graph theoretic constructions to solve modi¯ed versions of the Vicsek problem in which there are measurement delays, asynchronous events, or a group leader. In all three cases the conditions under which consensus is achieved prove to be almost the same as the conditions under which consensus is achieved in the synchronous, delayfree, leaderless case. 1
Consensus propagation
 IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
"... Abstract — We propose consensus propagation, an asynchronous distributed protocol for averaging numbers across a network. We establish convergence, characterize the convergence rate for regular graphs, and demonstrate that the protocol exhibits better scaling properties than pairwise averaging, an a ..."
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Cited by 89 (5 self)
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Abstract — We propose consensus propagation, an asynchronous distributed protocol for averaging numbers across a network. We establish convergence, characterize the convergence rate for regular graphs, and demonstrate that the protocol exhibits better scaling properties than pairwise averaging, an alternative that has received much recent attention. Consensus propagation can be viewed as a special case of belief propagation, and our results contribute to the belief propagation literature. In particular, beyond singlyconnected graphs, there are very few classes of relevant problems for which belief propagation is known to converge. Index Terms — belief propagation, distributed averaging, distributed consensus, distributed signal processing, Gaussian Markov random fields, messagepassing algorithms, maxproduct algorithm, minsum algorithm, sumproduct algorithm. I.
Stabilization of planar collective motion with limited communication
 IEEE Trans. Automat. Contr
"... Abstract—This paper proposes a design methodology to stabilize relative equilibria in a model of identical, steered particles moving in the plane at unit speed. Relative equilibria either correspond to parallel motion of all particles with fixed relative spacing or to circular motion of all particle ..."
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Cited by 86 (29 self)
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Abstract—This paper proposes a design methodology to stabilize relative equilibria in a model of identical, steered particles moving in the plane at unit speed. Relative equilibria either correspond to parallel motion of all particles with fixed relative spacing or to circular motion of all particles around the same circle. Particles exchange relative information according to a communication graph that can be undirected or directed and timeinvariant or timevarying. The emphasis of this paper is to show how previous results assuming alltoall communication can be extended to a general communication framework. Index Terms—Cooperative control, geometric control, multiagent systems, stabilization. I.
A necessary and sufficient condition for consensus over random networks
 IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
, 2008
"... Abstract — In this paper we consider the consensus problem for stochastic switched linear dynamical systems. For discretetime and continuoustime stochastic switched linear systems, we present necessary and sufficient conditions under which such systems reach a consensus almost surely. In the discre ..."
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Cited by 84 (6 self)
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Abstract — In this paper we consider the consensus problem for stochastic switched linear dynamical systems. For discretetime and continuoustime stochastic switched linear systems, we present necessary and sufficient conditions under which such systems reach a consensus almost surely. In the discretetime case, our assumption is that the underlying graph of the system at any given time instance is derived from a random graph process, independent of other time instances. These graphs can be weighted, directed and with dependent edges. For the continuoustime case, we assume that the switching is governed by a Poisson point process and the graphs characterizing the topology of the system are independent and identically distributed over time. For both such frameworks, we present necessary and sufficient conditions for almost sure asymptotic consensus using simple ergodicity and probabilistic arguments. These easily verifiable conditions depend on the spectrum of the average weight matrix and the average Laplacian matrix for the discretetime and continuoustime cases, respectively. I.