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122
Efficient collision detection using bounding volume hierarchies of kdops
 IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
, 1998
"... Abstract—Collision detection is of paramount importance for many applications in computer graphics and visualization. Typically, the input to a collision detection algorithm is a large number of geometric objects comprising an environment, together with a set of objects moving within the environment ..."
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Cited by 227 (4 self)
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Abstract—Collision detection is of paramount importance for many applications in computer graphics and visualization. Typically, the input to a collision detection algorithm is a large number of geometric objects comprising an environment, together with a set of objects moving within the environment. In addition to determining accurately the contacts that occur between pairs of objects, one needs also to do so at realtime rates. Applications such as haptic forcefeedback can require over 1,000 collision queries per second. In this paper, we develop and analyze a method, based on boundingvolume hierarchies, for efficient collision detection for objects moving within highly complex environments. Our choice of bounding volume is to use a “discrete orientation polytope” (“kdop”), a convex polytope whose facets are determined by halfspaces whose outward normals come from a small fixed set of k orientations. We compare a variety of methods for constructing hierarchies (“BVtrees”) of bounding kdops. Further, we propose algorithms for maintaining an effective BVtree of kdops for moving objects, as they rotate, and for performing fast collision detection using BVtrees of the moving objects and of the environment. Our algorithms have been implemented and tested. We provide experimental evidence showing that our approach yields substantially faster collision detection than previous methods. Index Terms—Collision detection, intersection searching, bounding volume hierarchies, discrete orientation polytopes, bounding boxes, virtual reality, virtual environments. 1
The Power Crust
, 2001
"... The power crust is a construction which takes a sample of points from the surface of a threedimensional object and produces a surface mesh and an approximate medial axis. The approach is to first approximate the medial axis transform (MAT) of the object. We then use an inverse transform to produce ..."
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Cited by 198 (6 self)
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The power crust is a construction which takes a sample of points from the surface of a threedimensional object and produces a surface mesh and an approximate medial axis. The approach is to first approximate the medial axis transform (MAT) of the object. We then use an inverse transform to produce the surface representation from the MAT.
Randomized Kinodynamic Motion Planning with Moving Obstacles
, 2000
"... We present a randomized motion planner for robots that must avoid moving obstacles and achieve a specified goal under kinematic and dynamic constraints. The planner samples the robot's statetime space by picking control inputs at random and integrating the equations of motion. The result is a roa ..."
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Cited by 190 (12 self)
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We present a randomized motion planner for robots that must avoid moving obstacles and achieve a specified goal under kinematic and dynamic constraints. The planner samples the robot's statetime space by picking control inputs at random and integrating the equations of motion. The result is a roadmap of sampled statetime points, called milestones, connected by short admissible trajectories. The planner does not precompute the roadmap as traditional probabilistic roadmap planners do; instead, for each planning query, it generates a new roadmap to find a trajectory between an initial and a goal statetime point. We prove in this paper that the probability that the planner fails to find such a trajectory when one exists quickly goes to 0, as the number of milestones grows. The planner has been implemented and tested successfully in both simulated and real environments. In the latter case, a vision module estimates obstacle motions just before planning starts; the planner is then allocated a small, fixed amount of time to compute a trajectory. If a change in the obstacle motion is detected while the robot executes the planned trajectory, the planner recomputes a trajectory on the fly. 1
The Power Crust, Unions of Balls, and the Medial Axis Transform
 Computational Geometry: Theory and Applications
, 2000
"... The medial axis transform (or MAT) is a representation of an object as an infinite union of balls. We consider approximating the MAT of a threedimensional object, and its complement, with a finite union of balls. Using this approximate MAT we define a new piecewiselinear approximation to the objec ..."
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Cited by 173 (6 self)
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The medial axis transform (or MAT) is a representation of an object as an infinite union of balls. We consider approximating the MAT of a threedimensional object, and its complement, with a finite union of balls. Using this approximate MAT we define a new piecewiselinear approximation to the object surface, which we call the power crust. We assume that we are given as input a suficiently dense sample of points from the object surface. We select a subset of the Voronoi balls of the sample, the polar balls, as the union of balls representation. We bound the geometric error of the union, and of the corresponding power crust, and show that both representations are topologically correct as well. Thus, our results provide a new algorithm for surface reconstruction from sample points. By construction, the power crust is always the boundary of a solid, so we avoid the holefilling or manifold extraction steps used in previous algorithms. The union of balls representation and the power crust have corresponding piecewiselinear dual representations, which in some sense approximate the medial axis. We show a geometric relationship between these duals and the medial axis by proving that, as the sampling density goes to infinity, the set of poles, the centers of the polar balls, converge to the medial axis.
Efficient Collision Detection of Complex Deformable Models using AABB Trees
 J. Graphics Tools
, 1998
"... We present a scheme for exact collision detection between complex models undergoing rigid motion and deformation. The scheme relies on a hierarchical model representation using axisaligned bounding boxes (AABBs). In recent work, AABB trees have been shown to be slower than oriented bounding box ..."
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Cited by 170 (1 self)
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We present a scheme for exact collision detection between complex models undergoing rigid motion and deformation. The scheme relies on a hierarchical model representation using axisaligned bounding boxes (AABBs). In recent work, AABB trees have been shown to be slower than oriented bounding box (OBB) trees. In this paper, we describe a way to speed up overlap tests between AABBs, such that for collision detection of rigid models, the difference in performance between the two representations is greatly reduced. Furthermore, we show how to quickly update an AABB tree as a model is deformed. We thus find AABB trees to be the method of choice for collision detection of complex models undergoing deformation. In fact, because they are not much slower to test, are faster to build, and use less storage than OBB trees, AABB trees might be a reasonable choice for rigid models as well. Keywords: computer animation, collision detection, hierarchical data structures, deformable model...
Indexdriven similarity search in metric spaces
 ACM Transactions on Database Systems
, 2003
"... Similarity search is a very important operation in multimedia databases and other database applications involving complex objects, and involves finding objects in a data set S similar to a query object q, based on some similarity measure. In this article, we focus on methods for similarity search th ..."
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Cited by 132 (6 self)
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Similarity search is a very important operation in multimedia databases and other database applications involving complex objects, and involves finding objects in a data set S similar to a query object q, based on some similarity measure. In this article, we focus on methods for similarity search that make the general assumption that similarity is represented with a distance metric d. Existing methods for handling similarity search in this setting typically fall into one of two classes. The first directly indexes the objects based on distances (distancebased indexing), while the second is based on mapping to a vector space (mappingbased approach). The main part of this article is dedicated to a survey of distancebased indexing methods, but we also briefly outline how search occurs in mappingbased methods. We also present a general framework for performing search based on distances, and present algorithms for common types of queries that operate on an arbitrary “search hierarchy. ” These algorithms can be applied on each of the methods presented, provided a suitable search hierarchy is defined.
Collision Detection for Deformable Objects
, 2004
"... Interactive environments for dynamically deforming objects play an important role in surgery simulation and entertainment technology. These environments require fast deformable models and very efficient collision handling techniques. While collision detection for rigid bodies is wellinvestigated, c ..."
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Cited by 77 (14 self)
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Interactive environments for dynamically deforming objects play an important role in surgery simulation and entertainment technology. These environments require fast deformable models and very efficient collision handling techniques. While collision detection for rigid bodies is wellinvestigated, collision detection for deformable objects introduces additional challenging problems. This paper focusses on these aspects and summarizes recent research in the area of deformable collision detection. Various approaches based on bounding volume hierarchies, distance fields, and spatial partitioning are discussed. Further, imagespace techniques and stochastic methods are considered. Applications in cloth modeling and surgical simulation are presented.
A Fast TriangleTriangle Intersection Test
 Journal of Graphics Tools
, 1997
"... This paper presents a method, along with some optimizations, for computing whether or not two triangles intersect. The code, which is shown to be fast, can be used in, for example, collision detection algorithms. 1 Introduction Most collision detection algorithms, such as OBBTree [Gottschalk96], ..."
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Cited by 55 (0 self)
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This paper presents a method, along with some optimizations, for computing whether or not two triangles intersect. The code, which is shown to be fast, can be used in, for example, collision detection algorithms. 1 Introduction Most collision detection algorithms, such as OBBTree [Gottschalk96], sphere hierarchies [Hubbard96] and BVtrees [Klosowski97], try to minimize the number of primitiveprimitive intersections that have to be computed. Still, a fast and reliable method for computing the primitiveprimitive intersection is desired. Since rendering hardware is often targeted for triangles, the primitives in collision detection algorithms are often triangles as well. This paper describes a method for determining if two triangles intersect. 2 Intersection Test Method Let us denote the two triangles # # and # # ; the vertices of # # and # # by # # # , # # # , # # # , and # # # , # # # , # # # respectively; and the planes in which the triangles lie # # and # # . Firs...