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127
Evolving Algebras 1993: Lipari Guide
, 1995
"... Contents 1 Introduction 3 2 Static Algebras and Updates 4 2.1 Static Algebras: Motivation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2.2 Vocabularies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.3 Definition of Static Algebras . . . . . ..."
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Cited by 405 (36 self)
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Contents 1 Introduction 3 2 Static Algebras and Updates 4 2.1 Static Algebras: Motivation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2.2 Vocabularies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.3 Definition of Static Algebras . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.4 Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.5 Locations and Updates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2.6 Update Sets and Families of Update Sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2.7 Conservative Determinism vs. Local Nondeterminism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3 Sequential Evolving Algebras 7 3.1 Basic Transition Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3.1.1 Update Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3.1.2 Two Rule Constructors . . . .
Complexity and Expressive Power of Logic Programming
, 1997
"... This paper surveys various complexity results on different forms of logic programming. The main focus is on decidable forms of logic programming, in particular, propositional logic programming and datalog, but we also mention general logic programming with function symbols. Next to classical results ..."
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Cited by 281 (57 self)
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This paper surveys various complexity results on different forms of logic programming. The main focus is on decidable forms of logic programming, in particular, propositional logic programming and datalog, but we also mention general logic programming with function symbols. Next to classical results on plain logic programming (pure Horn clause programs), more recent results on various important extensions of logic programming are surveyed. These include logic programming with different forms of negation, disjunctive logic programming, logic programming with equality, and constraint logic programming. The complexity of the unification problem is also addressed.
An Optimal Lower Bound on the Number of Variables for Graph Identification
 Combinatorica
, 1992
"... In this paper we show that Ω(n) variables are needed for firstorder logic with counting to identify graphs on n vertices. The kvariable language with counting is equivalent to the (k − 1)dimensional WeisfeilerLehman method. We thus settle a longstanding open problem. Previously it was an open q ..."
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Cited by 135 (9 self)
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In this paper we show that Ω(n) variables are needed for firstorder logic with counting to identify graphs on n vertices. The kvariable language with counting is equivalent to the (k − 1)dimensional WeisfeilerLehman method. We thus settle a longstanding open problem. Previously it was an open question whether or not 4 variables suffice. Our lower bound remains true over a set of graphs of color class size 4. This contrasts sharply with the fact that 3 variables suffice to identify all graphs of color class size 3, and 2 variables suffice to identify almost all graphs. Our lower bound is optimal up to multiplication by a constant because n variables obviously suffice to identify graphs on n vertices. 1
Evolving Algebras: An Attempt To Discover Semantics
, 1993
"... Machine (a virtual machine model which underlies most of the current Prolog implementations and incorporates crucial optimization techniques) starting from a more abstract EA for Prolog developed by Borger in [Bo1Bo3]. Q: How do you tailor an EA machine to the abstraction level of an algorithm wh ..."
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Cited by 74 (12 self)
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Machine (a virtual machine model which underlies most of the current Prolog implementations and incorporates crucial optimization techniques) starting from a more abstract EA for Prolog developed by Borger in [Bo1Bo3]. Q: How do you tailor an EA machine to the abstraction level of an algorithm whose individual steps are complicated algorithms all by themselves? For example, the algorithm may be written in a high level language that allows, say, multiplying integer matrices in one step. A: You model the given algorithm modulo those algorithms needed to perform single steps. In your case, matrix multiplication will be built in as an operation. Q: Coming back to Turing, there could be a good reason for him to speak about computable functions rather than algorithms. We don't really know what algorithms are. A: I agree. Notice, however, that there are different notions of algorithm. On the one hand, an algorithm is an intuitive idea which you have in your head before writing code. Th...
Describing Graphs: a FirstOrder Approach to Graph Canonization
, 1990
"... In this paper we ask the question, "What must be added to firstorder logic plus leastfixed point to obtain exactly the polynomialtime properties of unordered graphs?" We consider the languages Lk consisting of firstorder logic restricted to k variables and Ck consisting of Lk plus "counting ..."
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Cited by 57 (7 self)
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In this paper we ask the question, "What must be added to firstorder logic plus leastfixed point to obtain exactly the polynomialtime properties of unordered graphs?" We consider the languages Lk consisting of firstorder logic restricted to k variables and Ck consisting of Lk plus "counting quantifiers". We give efficient canonization algorithms for graphs characterized by Ck or Lk . It follows from known results that all trees and almost all graphs are characterized by C2 .
Computing With FirstOrder Logic
, 1995
"... We study two important extensions of firstorder logic (FO) with iteration, the fixpoint and while queries. The main result of the paper concerns the open problem of the relationship between fixpoint and while: they are the same iff ptime = pspace. These and other expressibility results are obtaine ..."
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Cited by 53 (13 self)
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We study two important extensions of firstorder logic (FO) with iteration, the fixpoint and while queries. The main result of the paper concerns the open problem of the relationship between fixpoint and while: they are the same iff ptime = pspace. These and other expressibility results are obtained using a powerful normal form for while which shows that each while computation over an unordered domain can be reduced to a while computation over an ordered domain via a fixpoint query. The fixpoint query computes an equivalence relation on tuples which is a congruence with respect to the rest of the computation. The same technique is used to show that equivalence of tuples and structures with respect to FO formulas with bounded number of variables is definable in fixpoint. Generalizing fixpoint and while, we consider more powerful languages which model arbitrary computation interacting with a database using a finite set of FO queries. Such computation is modeled by a relational machine...
A Descriptive Approach to LanguageTheoretic Complexity
, 1996
"... Contents 1 Language Complexity in Generative Grammar 3 Part I The Descriptive Complexity of Strongly ContextFree Languages 11 2 Introduction to Part I 13 3 Trees as Elementary Structures 15 4 L 2 K;P and SnS 25 5 Definability and NonDefinability in L 2 K;P 35 6 Conclusion of Part I 57 DRAFT ..."
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Cited by 52 (3 self)
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Contents 1 Language Complexity in Generative Grammar 3 Part I The Descriptive Complexity of Strongly ContextFree Languages 11 2 Introduction to Part I 13 3 Trees as Elementary Structures 15 4 L 2 K;P and SnS 25 5 Definability and NonDefinability in L 2 K;P 35 6 Conclusion of Part I 57 DRAFT 2 / Contents Part II The Generative Capacity of GB Theories 59 7 Introduction to Part II 61 8 The Fundamental Structures of GB Theories 69 9 GB and Nondefinability in L 2 K;P 79 10 Formalizing XBar Theory 93 11 The Lexicon, Subcategorization, Thetatheory, and Case Theory 111 12 Binding and Control 119 13 Chains 131 14 Reconstruction 157 15 Limitations of the Interpretation 173 16 Conclusion of Part II 179 A Index of Definitions 183 Bibliography DRAFT 1<