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**1 - 2**of**2**### A Finite Simulation Method in a Non-Deterministic Call-by-Need Calculus with letrec, constructors and case

, 2008

"... Abstract. The paper proposes a variation of simulation for checking and proving contextual equivalence in a non-deterministic call-by-need lambda-calculus with constructors, case, seq, and a letrec with cyclic dependencies. It also proposes a novel method to prove its correctness. The calculus ’ sem ..."

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Abstract. The paper proposes a variation of simulation for checking and proving contextual equivalence in a non-deterministic call-by-need lambda-calculus with constructors, case, seq, and a letrec with cyclic dependencies. It also proposes a novel method to prove its correctness. The calculus ’ semantics is based on a small-step rewrite semantics and on may-convergence. The cyclic nature of letrec bindings, as well as nondeterminism, makes known approaches to prove that simulation implies contextual equivalence, such as Howe’s proof technique, inapplicable in this setting. The basic technique for the simulation as well as the correctness proof is called pre-evaluation, which computes a set of answers for every closed expression. If simulation succeeds in finite computation depth, then it is guaranteed to show contextual preorder of expressions. 1

### Algorithms for Extended Alpha-Equivalence and Complexity ∗

"... Equality of expressions in lambda-calculi, higher-order programming languages, higher-order programming calculi and process calculi is defined as alpha-equivalence. Permutability of bindings in let-constructs and structural congruence axioms extend alpha-equivalence. We analyse these extended alpha- ..."

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Equality of expressions in lambda-calculi, higher-order programming languages, higher-order programming calculi and process calculi is defined as alpha-equivalence. Permutability of bindings in let-constructs and structural congruence axioms extend alpha-equivalence. We analyse these extended alpha-equivalences and show that there are calculi with polynomial time algorithms, that a multiple-binding “let ” may make alpha-equivalence as hard as finding graph-isomorphisms, and that the replication operator in the pi-calculus may lead to an EXPSPACE-hard alphaequivalence problem.