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Design of capacityapproaching irregular lowdensity paritycheck codes
 IEEE TRANS. INFORM. THEORY
, 2001
"... We design lowdensity paritycheck (LDPC) codes that perform at rates extremely close to the Shannon capacity. The codes are built from highly irregular bipartite graphs with carefully chosen degree patterns on both sides. Our theoretical analysis of the codes is based on [1]. Assuming that the unde ..."
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Cited by 432 (7 self)
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We design lowdensity paritycheck (LDPC) codes that perform at rates extremely close to the Shannon capacity. The codes are built from highly irregular bipartite graphs with carefully chosen degree patterns on both sides. Our theoretical analysis of the codes is based on [1]. Assuming that the underlying communication channel is symmetric, we prove that the probability densities at the message nodes of the graph possess a certain symmetry. Using this symmetry property we then show that, under the assumption of no cycles, the message densities always converge as the number of iterations tends to infinity. Furthermore, we prove a stability condition which implies an upper bound on the fraction of errors that a beliefpropagation decoder can correct when applied to a code induced from a bipartite graph with a given degree distribution. Our codes are found by optimizing the degree structure of the underlying graphs. We develop several strategies to perform this optimization. We also present some simulation results for the codes found which show that the performance of the codes is very close to the asymptotic theoretical bounds.
Efficient erasure correcting codes
 IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
, 2001
"... Abstract—We introduce a simple erasure recovery algorithm for codes derived from cascades of sparse bipartite graphs and analyze the algorithm by analyzing a corresponding discretetime random process. As a result, we obtain a simple criterion involving the fractions of nodes of different degrees on ..."
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Cited by 250 (20 self)
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Abstract—We introduce a simple erasure recovery algorithm for codes derived from cascades of sparse bipartite graphs and analyze the algorithm by analyzing a corresponding discretetime random process. As a result, we obtain a simple criterion involving the fractions of nodes of different degrees on both sides of the graph which is necessary and sufficient for the decoding process to finish successfully with high probability. By carefully designing these graphs we can construct for any given rate and any given real number a family of linear codes of rate which can be encoded in time proportional to ��@I A times their block length. Furthermore, a codeword can be recovered with high probability from a portion of its entries of length @IC A or more. The recovery algorithm also runs in time proportional to ��@I A. Our algorithms have been implemented and work well in practice; various implementation issues are discussed. Index Terms—Erasure channel, large deviation analysis, lowdensity paritycheck codes. I.
Density evolution, thresholds and the stability condition for nonbinary LDPC codes
 IEEE Trans. on Comm
, 2005
"... We derive the density evolution equations for nonbinary lowdensity paritycheck (LDPC) ensembles when transmission takes place over the binary erasure channel. We introduce ensembles defined with respect to the general linear group over the binary field. For these ensembles the density evolution e ..."
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Cited by 12 (1 self)
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We derive the density evolution equations for nonbinary lowdensity paritycheck (LDPC) ensembles when transmission takes place over the binary erasure channel. We introduce ensembles defined with respect to the general linear group over the binary field. For these ensembles the density evolution equations can be written compactly. The density evolution for the general linear group helps us in understanding the density evolution for codes defined with respect to finite fields. We compute thresholds for different alphabet sizes for various LDPC ensembles. Surprisingly, the threshold is not a monotonic function of the alphabet size. We state the stability condition for nonbinary LDPC ensembles over any binary memoryless symmetric channel. We also give upper bounds on the MAP thresholds for various nonbinary ensembles based on EXIT curves and the area theorem. 1
The generalized area theorem and some of its consequences
 IEEE TRANS. INF. THEORY
, 2005
"... There is a fundamental relationship between belief propagation and maximum a posteriori decoding. The case of transmission over the binary erasure channel was investigated in detail in a companion paper. This paper investigates the extension to general memoryless channels (paying special attention t ..."
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Cited by 7 (2 self)
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There is a fundamental relationship between belief propagation and maximum a posteriori decoding. The case of transmission over the binary erasure channel was investigated in detail in a companion paper. This paper investigates the extension to general memoryless channels (paying special attention to the binary case). An area theorem for transmission over general memoryless channels is introduced and some of its many consequences are discussed. We show that this area theorem gives rise to an upperbound on the maximum a posteriori threshold for sparse graph codes. In situations where this bound is tight, the extrinsic soft bit estimates delivered by the belief propagation decoder coincide with the correct a posteriori probabilities above the maximum a posteriori threshold. More generally, it is conjectured that the fundamental relationship between the maximum a posteriori and the belief propagation decoder which was observed for transmission over the binary erasure channel carries over to the general case. We finally demonstrate that in order for the design rate of an ensemble to approach the capacity under belief propagation decoding the component codes have to be perfectly matched, a statement which is well known for the special case of transmission over the binary erasure channel.
1 The Generalized Area Theorem and Some of its Consequences
, 2005
"... Abstract — There is a fundamental relationship between belief propagation and maximum a posteriori decoding. The case of transmission over the binary erasure channel was investigated in detail in a companion paper. This paper investigates the extension to general memoryless channels (paying special ..."
Abstract
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Abstract — There is a fundamental relationship between belief propagation and maximum a posteriori decoding. The case of transmission over the binary erasure channel was investigated in detail in a companion paper. This paper investigates the extension to general memoryless channels (paying special attention to the binary case). An area theorem for transmission over general memoryless channels is introduced and some of its many consequences are discussed. We show that this area theorem gives rise to an upperbound on the maximum a posteriori threshold for sparse graph codes. In situations where this bound is tight, the extrinsic soft bit estimates delivered by the belief propagation decoder coincide with the correct a posteriori probabilities above the maximum a posteriori threshold. More generally, it is conjectured that the fundamental relationship between the maximum a posteriori and the belief propagation decoder which was observed for transmission over the binary erasure channel carries over to the general case. We finally demonstrate that in order for the design rate of an ensemble to approach the capacity under belief propagation decoding the component codes have to be perfectly matched, a statement which is well known for the special case of transmission over the binary erasure channel. Index Terms — belief propagation, maximum a posteriori, maximum likelihood, Maxwell construction, threshold, phase transition, Area Theorem, EXIT curve, entropy I.