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Automating FirstOrder Relational Logic
, 2000
"... An analysis is described that can automatically find models of firstorder formulas with relational operators and scalar quantifiers. The formula is translated to a quantifierfree boolean formula that has a model exactly when the original formula has a model within a given scope (that is, involving ..."
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Cited by 116 (19 self)
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An analysis is described that can automatically find models of firstorder formulas with relational operators and scalar quantifiers. The formula is translated to a quantifierfree boolean formula that has a model exactly when the original formula has a model within a given scope (that is, involving no more than some finite number of atoms). The paper presents a simple logic and gives a compositional translation scheme. It reports on the use of Alcoa, a tool based on the scheme, to analyze a variety of specifications expressed in Alloy, an object modelling notation based on the logic.
Kodkod: A relational model finder
 In Tools and Algorithms for Construction and Analysis of Systems (TACAS
, 2007
"... Abstract. The key design challenges in the construction of a SATbased relational model finder are described, and novel techniques are proposed to address them. An efficient model finder must have a mechanism for specifying partial solutions, an effective symmetry detection and breaking scheme, and ..."
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Cited by 60 (4 self)
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Abstract. The key design challenges in the construction of a SATbased relational model finder are described, and novel techniques are proposed to address them. An efficient model finder must have a mechanism for specifying partial solutions, an effective symmetry detection and breaking scheme, and an economical translation from relational to boolean logic. These desiderata are addressed with three new techniques: a symmetry detection algorithm that works in the presence of partial solutions, a sparsematrix representation of relations, and a compact representation of boolean formulas inspired by boolean expression diagrams and reduced boolean circuits. The presented techniques have been implemented and evaluated, with promising results. 1
2001b, ‘The CADE17 ATP System Competition
 Journal of Automated Reasoning
"... Abstract. The results of the IJCAR ATP System Competition are presented. ..."
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Cited by 28 (4 self)
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Abstract. The results of the IJCAR ATP System Competition are presented.
IsomorphFree Model Enumeration: A New Method for Checking Relational Specifications
 ACM TRANSACTIONS ON PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES AND SYSTEMS
, 1998
"... This article describes a technique for analyzing relational specifications. The underlying idea is very simple. Both simulation and checking amount to finding models of a relational formula, i.e., assignments for which the formula is true. For simulation the formula is the description of the operati ..."
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Cited by 18 (10 self)
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This article describes a technique for analyzing relational specifications. The underlying idea is very simple. Both simulation and checking amount to finding models of a relational formula, i.e., assignments for which the formula is true. For simulation the formula is the description of the operation; for checking, the formula is the negation of an assertion about an operation. Models are found by a generateandtest strategy: the formula is repeatedly evaluated for a series of assignments until one is found for which the formula is true
Detecting Unsolvable Queries for Definite Logic Programs
, 1998
"... In logic programming, almost no work has been done so far on proving that certain queries cannot succeed. Work in this direction could be useful for queries which seem to be nonterminating. Such queries are not exceptional, e.g. in planning problems. The paper develops some methods, based on ab ..."
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Cited by 11 (3 self)
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In logic programming, almost no work has been done so far on proving that certain queries cannot succeed. Work in this direction could be useful for queries which seem to be nonterminating. Such queries are not exceptional, e.g. in planning problems. The paper develops some methods, based on abduction, goaldirectedness, tabulation, and constraint techniques, for proving failure of queries for definite logic programs. It also reports some experiments with various tools.
The Design of a Relational Engine
 In Foundations of Software Engineering
, 2006
"... The Design of a Relational Engine The key design challenges in the construction of a SATbased relational engine are described, and novel techniques are proposed to address them. An efficient engine must have a mechanism for specifying partial solutions, an effective symmetry detection and breaking ..."
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Cited by 7 (2 self)
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The Design of a Relational Engine The key design challenges in the construction of a SATbased relational engine are described, and novel techniques are proposed to address them. An efficient engine must have a mechanism for specifying partial solutions, an effective symmetry detection and breaking scheme, and an economical translation from relational to boolean logic. These desiderata are addressed with three new techniques: a symmetry detection algorithm that works in the presence of partial solutions, a sparsematrix representation of relations, and a compact representation of boolean formulas inspired by boolean expression diagrams and reduced boolean circuits. The presented techniques have been implemented and evaluated, with promising results.
Communication formalisms for automated theorem proving tools
 PROC. OF IJCAI18 WORKSHOP ON AGENTS AND AUTOMATED REASONING
, 2003
"... This paper describes two communication formalisms for Automated Theorem Proving (ATP) tools. First, a problem and solution language has been designed. The language will be used for writing problems to be input to ATP systems, and for writing solutions output by ATP systems. Second, a hierarchy of re ..."
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Cited by 4 (2 self)
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This paper describes two communication formalisms for Automated Theorem Proving (ATP) tools. First, a problem and solution language has been designed. The language will be used for writing problems to be input to ATP systems, and for writing solutions output by ATP systems. Second, a hierarchy of result statuses, which adequately express the range of results output by ATP systems, has been established. These formalisms will support application and research in ATP, and will facilitate direct communication between ATP tools when they are used as embedded components in larger systems.
Specifying Latin Square Problems in Propositional Logic
 In Automated Reasoning and Its Applications
, 1997
"... Introduction This chapter discusses how to specify various Latin squares so that their existence can be efficiently decided by computer programs. The computer programs considered here are socalled generalpurpose model generation programs (or simply model generators) that are used to solve constra ..."
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Cited by 3 (0 self)
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Introduction This chapter discusses how to specify various Latin squares so that their existence can be efficiently decided by computer programs. The computer programs considered here are socalled generalpurpose model generation programs (or simply model generators) that are used to solve constraint satisfaction problems in AI, to prove theorems in finite domains, or to produce counterexamples to false conjectures. For instance, any example of finite structures in Larry Wos's book [16] can be easily solved using these model generators. In the recent years, model generators have been used to solve the existence problem of Latin squares with specified properties. Numerous previously open cases of Latin squares were first solved by these model generators. These Latin square problems are attacked along the two lines: (a) develop efficient model generation programs; (b) provide efficient specifications of the same problem. This chapter will focus on the latter as we realize throu
Semantic guidance with SCOTT
, 1999
"... Introduction SCOTT is an ATP formed by augmenting OTTER [1] (a resolutionstyle ATP) with FINDER [2] (a finite model generator) as a subsystem. By providing semantic information about the search as it unfolds, the FINDER subsystem allows us to explore two new strategies [4]. The first, semantic res ..."
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Cited by 2 (0 self)
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Introduction SCOTT is an ATP formed by augmenting OTTER [1] (a resolutionstyle ATP) with FINDER [2] (a finite model generator) as a subsystem. By providing semantic information about the search as it unfolds, the FINDER subsystem allows us to explore two new strategies [4]. The first, semantic resolution, generalises the set of support strategy throughout the whole search [5]. This has the potential to substantially reduce the number of proof fragments that need to be explored at any level in a systematic search. Although semantic resolution has been a theoretical possibility for a long time, it had not been implemented in any sophisticated fashion before the formation of SCOTT [4]. The second strategy, semantic guidance, uses semantic information to guide the prover towards developing the most promising proof fragments. This strategy is more interesting because it presents a serious challenge to the "inevitable" combinatorial e