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49
Satisfiability Solvers
, 2008
"... The past few years have seen an enormous progress in the performance of Boolean satisfiability (SAT) solvers. Despite the worstcase exponential run time of all known algorithms, satisfiability solvers are increasingly leaving their mark as a generalpurpose tool in areas as diverse as software and h ..."
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Cited by 25 (0 self)
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The past few years have seen an enormous progress in the performance of Boolean satisfiability (SAT) solvers. Despite the worstcase exponential run time of all known algorithms, satisfiability solvers are increasingly leaving their mark as a generalpurpose tool in areas as diverse as software and hardware verification [29–31, 228], automatic test pattern generation [138, 221], planning [129, 197], scheduling [103], and even challenging problems from algebra [238]. Annual SAT competitions have led to the development of dozens of clever implementations of such solvers [e.g. 13,
Lossy source encoding via messagepassing and decimation over generalized codewords of LDGM codes
 In: Proceedings of the International Symposium on Information Theory
, 2005
"... Abstract — We describe messagepassing and decimation approaches for lossy source coding using lowdensity generator matrix (LDGM) codes. In particular, this paper addresses the problem of encoding a Bernoulli() source: for randomly generated LDGM codes with suitably irregular degree distributions, ..."
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Cited by 19 (2 self)
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Abstract — We describe messagepassing and decimation approaches for lossy source coding using lowdensity generator matrix (LDGM) codes. In particular, this paper addresses the problem of encoding a Bernoulli() source: for randomly generated LDGM codes with suitably irregular degree distributions, our methods yield performance very close to the rate distortion limit over a range of rates. Our approach is inspired by the survey propagation (SP) algorithm, originally developed by Mézard et al. [1] for solving random satisfiability problems. Previous work by Maneva et al. [2] shows how SP can be understood as belief propagation (BP) for an alternative representation of satisfiability problems. In analogy to this connection, our approach is to define a family of Markov random fields over generalized codewords, from which local messagepassing rules can be derived in the standard way. The overall source encoding method is based on messagepassing, setting a subset of bits to their preferred values (decimation), and reducing the code. I.
Leveraging belief propagation, backtrack search, and statistics for model counting
"... Abstract. We consider the problem of estimating the model count (number of solutions) of Boolean formulas, and present two techniques that compute estimates of these counts, as well as either lower or upper bounds with different tradeoffs between efficiency, bound quality, and correctness guarantee ..."
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Cited by 15 (5 self)
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Abstract. We consider the problem of estimating the model count (number of solutions) of Boolean formulas, and present two techniques that compute estimates of these counts, as well as either lower or upper bounds with different tradeoffs between efficiency, bound quality, and correctness guarantee. For lower bounds, we use a recent framework for probabilistic correctness guarantees, and exploit message passing techniques for marginal probability estimation, namely, variations of Belief Propagation (BP). Our results suggest that BP provides useful information even on structured loopy formulas. For upper bounds, we perform multiple runs of the MiniSat SAT solver with a minor modification, and obtain statistical bounds on the model count based on the observation that the distribution of a certain quantity of interest is often very close to the normal distribution. Our experiments demonstrate that our model counters based on these two ideas, BPCount and MiniCount, can provide very good bounds in time significantly less than alternative approaches. 1
The connectivity of boolean satisfiability: Computational and structural dichotomies
 in Proc. 33 rd Intl. Colloquium on Automata, Languages and Programming
"... Boolean satisfiability problems are an important benchmark for questions about complexity, algorithms, heuristics and threshold phenomena. Recent work on heuristics, and the satisfiability threshold has centered around the structure and connectivity of the solution space. Motivated by this work, we ..."
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Cited by 15 (4 self)
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Boolean satisfiability problems are an important benchmark for questions about complexity, algorithms, heuristics and threshold phenomena. Recent work on heuristics, and the satisfiability threshold has centered around the structure and connectivity of the solution space. Motivated by this work, we study structural and connectivityrelated properties of the space of solutions of Boolean satisfiability problems and establish various dichotomies in Schaefer’s framework. On the structural side, we obtain dichotomies for the kinds of subgraphs of the hypercube that can be induced by the solutions of Boolean formulas, as well as for the diameter of the connected components of the solution space. On the computational side, we establish dichotomy theorems for the complexity of the connectivity and stconnectivity questions for the graph of solutions of Boolean formulas. Our results assert that the intractable side of the computational dichotomies is PSPACEcomplete, while the tractable side which includes but is not limited to all problems with polynomial time algorithms for satisfiability is in P for the stconnectivity question, and in coNP for the connectivity question. The diameter of components can be exponential for the PSPACEcomplete cases, whereas in all other cases it is linear; thus, small diameter and tractability of the connectivity problems are remarkably aligned. The crux of our results is an expressibility theorem showing that in the tractable cases, the subgraphs induced by the solution space possess certain good structural properties, whereas in the intractable cases, the subgraphs can be arbitrary. 1
BeliefPropagation for Weighted bMatchings on Arbitrary Graphs and its Relation to Linear Programs with Integer Solutions
 in arXiv, http://www.arxiv.org/abs/0709.1190v1
, 2007
"... We consider the general problem of finding the minimum weight bmatching on arbitrary graphs. We prove that, whenever the linear programming (LP) relaxation of the problem has no fractional solutions, then the belief propagation (BP) algorithm converges to the correct solution. This result is notabl ..."
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Cited by 13 (0 self)
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We consider the general problem of finding the minimum weight bmatching on arbitrary graphs. We prove that, whenever the linear programming (LP) relaxation of the problem has no fractional solutions, then the belief propagation (BP) algorithm converges to the correct solution. This result is notable in several regards: (1) It is one of a very small number of proofs showing correctness of BP without any constraint on the graph structure. (2) Instead of showing that BP leads to a PTAS, we give a finite bound for the number of iterations after which BP has converged to the exact solution. (3) Variants of the proof work for both synchronous and asynchronous BP; to the best of our knowledge, it is the first proof of convergence and correctness of an asynchronous BP algorithm for a combinatorial optimization problem. (4) It works for both ordinary bmatchings and the more difficult case of perfect bmatchings. (5) Together with the recent work of Sanghavi, Malioutov and Wilskly [41] they are the first complete proofs showing that tightness of LP implies correctness of BP. 1
Survey Propagation Revisited
"... Survey propagation (SP) is an exciting new technique that has been remarkably successful at solving very large hard combinatorial problems, such as determining the satisfiability of Boolean formulas. In a promising attempt at understanding the success of SP, it was recently shown that SP can be view ..."
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Cited by 11 (2 self)
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Survey propagation (SP) is an exciting new technique that has been remarkably successful at solving very large hard combinatorial problems, such as determining the satisfiability of Boolean formulas. In a promising attempt at understanding the success of SP, it was recently shown that SP can be viewed as a form of belief propagation, computing marginal probabilities over certain objects called covers of a formula. This explanation was, however, shortly dismissed by experiments suggesting that nontrivial covers simply do not exist for large formulas. In this paper, we show that these experiments were misleading: not only do covers exist for large hard random formulas, SP is surprisingly accurate at computing marginals over these covers despite the existence of many cycles in the formulas. This reopens a potentially simpler line of reasoning for understanding SP, in contrast to some alternative lines of explanation that have been proposed assuming covers do not exist. 1
Modern coding theory: the statistical mechanics and computer science point of view
, 2007
"... These are the notes for a set of lectures delivered by the two authors at the Les Houches Summer School on ‘Complex Systems’ in July 2006. They provide an introduction to the basic concepts in modern (probabilistic) coding theory, highlighting connections with statistical mechanics. We also stress c ..."
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Cited by 9 (0 self)
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These are the notes for a set of lectures delivered by the two authors at the Les Houches Summer School on ‘Complex Systems’ in July 2006. They provide an introduction to the basic concepts in modern (probabilistic) coding theory, highlighting connections with statistical mechanics. We also stress common concepts with other disciplines dealing with similar problems that can be generically referred to as ‘large graphical models’. While most of the lectures are devoted to the classical channel coding problem over simple memoryless channels, we present a discussion of more complex channel models. We conclude with an overview of the main open challenges in the field.
MessagePassing and Local Heuristics as Decimation Strategies for Satisfiability
"... Decimation is a simple process for solving constraint satisfaction problems, by repeatedly fixing variable values and simplifying without reconsidering earlier decisions. We investigate different decimation strategies, contrasting those based on local, syntactic information from those based on messa ..."
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Cited by 9 (1 self)
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Decimation is a simple process for solving constraint satisfaction problems, by repeatedly fixing variable values and simplifying without reconsidering earlier decisions. We investigate different decimation strategies, contrasting those based on local, syntactic information from those based on message passing, such as statistical physics based Survey Propagation (SP) and the related and more wellknown Belief Propagation (BP). Our results reveal that once we resolve convergence issues, BP itself can solve fairly hard random kSAT formulas through decimation; the gap between BP and SP narrows down quickly as k increases. We also investigate observable differences between BP/SP and other common CSP heuristics as decimation proceeds, exploring the hardness of the decimated formulas and identifying a somewhat unexpected feature of message passing heuristics, namely, unlike other heuristics for satisfiability, they avoid unit propagation as variables are fixed.