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20
Observational Equality, Now!
 A SUBMISSION TO PLPV 2007
, 2007
"... This paper has something new and positive to say about propositional equality in programming and proof systems based on the CurryHoward correspondence between propositions and types. We have found a way to present a propositional equality type • which is substitutive, allowing us to reason by repla ..."
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Cited by 23 (8 self)
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This paper has something new and positive to say about propositional equality in programming and proof systems based on the CurryHoward correspondence between propositions and types. We have found a way to present a propositional equality type • which is substitutive, allowing us to reason by replacing equal for equal in propositions; • which reflects the observable behaviour of values rather than their construction: in particular, we have extensionality— functions are equal if they take equal inputs to equal outputs; • which retains strong normalisation, decidable typechecking and canonicity—the property that closed normal forms inhabiting datatypes have canonical constructors; • which allows inductive data structures to be expressed in terms of a standard characterisation of wellfounded trees; • which is presented syntactically—you can implement it directly, and we are doing so—this approach stands at the core of Epigram 2; • which you can play with now: we have simulated our system by a shallow embedding in Agda 2, shipping as part of the standard examples package for that system [20]. Until now, it has always been necessary to sacrifice some of these aspects. The closest attempt in the literature is Altenkirch’s construction of a setoidmodel for a system with canonicity and extensionality on top of an intensional type theory with proofirrelevant propositions [4]. Our new proposal simplifies Altenkirch’s construction by adopting McBride’s heterogeneous approach to equality [18].
A partial formalisation of a dependently typed language as an inductiverecursive family
 IN PROCEEDINGS OF THE TYPES MEETING 2006
, 2007
"... It is demonstrated how a dependently typed lambda calculus (a logical framework) can be formalised inside a language with inductiverecursive families. The formalisation does not use raw terms; the welltyped terms are defined directly. It is hence impossible to create illtyped terms. As an exampl ..."
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Cited by 13 (0 self)
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It is demonstrated how a dependently typed lambda calculus (a logical framework) can be formalised inside a language with inductiverecursive families. The formalisation does not use raw terms; the welltyped terms are defined directly. It is hence impossible to create illtyped terms. As an example of programming with strong invariants, and to show that the formalisation is usable, normalisation is proved. Moreover, this proof seems to be the first formal account of normalisation by evaluation for a dependently typed language.
Verifying a Semantic βηConversion Test for MartinLöf Type Theory
, 2008
"... Typechecking algorithms for dependent type theories often rely on the interpretation of terms in some semantic domain of values when checking equalities. Here we analyze a version of Coquand’s algorithm for checking the βηequality of such semantic values in a theory with a predicative universe hi ..."
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Cited by 12 (9 self)
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Typechecking algorithms for dependent type theories often rely on the interpretation of terms in some semantic domain of values when checking equalities. Here we analyze a version of Coquand’s algorithm for checking the βηequality of such semantic values in a theory with a predicative universe hierarchy and large elimination rules. Although this algorithm does not rely on normalization by evaluation explicitly, we show that similar ideas can be employed for its verification. In particular, our proof uses the new notions of contextual reification and strong semantic equality. The algorithm is part of a bidirectional type checking algorithm which checks whether a normal term has a certain semantic type, a technique notion of semantic domain in order to accommodate a variety of possible implementation techniques, such as normal forms, weak head normal forms, closures, and compiled code. Our aim is to get closer than previous work to verifying the typechecking algorithms which are actually used in practice.
A modular typechecking algorithm for type theory with singleton types and proof irrelevance
 IN TLCA’09, VOLUME 5608 OF LNCS
, 2009
"... ..."
Formalizing categorical models of type theory in type theory
 In International Workshop on Logical Frameworks and MetaLanguages: Theory and Practice
, 2007
"... This note is about work in progress on the topic of “internal type theory ” where we investigate the internal formalization of the categorical metatheory of constructive type theory in (an extension of) itself. The basic notion is that of a category with families, a categorical notion of model of de ..."
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Cited by 5 (2 self)
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This note is about work in progress on the topic of “internal type theory ” where we investigate the internal formalization of the categorical metatheory of constructive type theory in (an extension of) itself. The basic notion is that of a category with families, a categorical notion of model of dependent type theory. We discuss how to formalize the notion of category with families inside type theory and how to build initial categories with families. Initial categories with families will be term models which play the role of canonical syntax for dependent type theory. We also discuss the formalization of the result that categories with finite limits give rise to categories with families. This yields a typetheoretic perspective on Curien’s work on “substitution up to isomorphism”. Our formalization is being carried out in the proof assistant Agda 2 developed at Chalmers. 1
Typed Applicative Structures and Normalization by Evaluation for System F ω
"... Abstract. We present a normalizationbyevaluation (NbE) algorithm for System F ω with βηequality, the simplest impredicative type theory with computation on the type level. Values are kept abstract and requirements on values are kept to a minimum, allowing many different implementations of the alg ..."
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Cited by 4 (0 self)
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Abstract. We present a normalizationbyevaluation (NbE) algorithm for System F ω with βηequality, the simplest impredicative type theory with computation on the type level. Values are kept abstract and requirements on values are kept to a minimum, allowing many different implementations of the algorithm. The algorithm is verified through a general model construction using typed applicative structures, called type and object structures. Both soundness and completeness of NbE are conceived as an instance of a single fundamental theorem.
On the Algebraic Foundation of Proof Assistants for Intuitionistic Type Theory
, 2008
"... An algebraic presentation of MartinLöf’s intuitionistic type theory is given which is based on the notion of a category with families with extra structure. We then present a typechecking algorithm for the normal forms of this theory, and sketch how it gives rise to an initial category with familie ..."
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Cited by 3 (3 self)
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An algebraic presentation of MartinLöf’s intuitionistic type theory is given which is based on the notion of a category with families with extra structure. We then present a typechecking algorithm for the normal forms of this theory, and sketch how it gives rise to an initial category with families with extra structure. In this way we obtain a purely algebraic formulation of the correctness of the typechecking algorithm which provides the core of proof assistants for intuitionistic type theory.
Extensional normalization in the logical framework with proof irrelevant equality
 In Workshop on Normalization by Evaluation, affiliated to LiCS 2009, Los Angeles
, 2009
"... We extend the Logical Framework by proof irrelevant equality types and present an algorithm that computes unique long normal forms. The algorithm is inspired by normalizationbyevaluation. Equality proofs which are not reflexivity are erased to a single object ∗. The algorithm decides judgmental eq ..."
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Cited by 2 (2 self)
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We extend the Logical Framework by proof irrelevant equality types and present an algorithm that computes unique long normal forms. The algorithm is inspired by normalizationbyevaluation. Equality proofs which are not reflexivity are erased to a single object ∗. The algorithm decides judgmental equality, its completeness is established by a PER model. 1.
Weak βηnormalization and normalization by evaluation for System F
 In LPAR’08, volume 5330 of LNAI
, 2008
"... Abstract. A general version of the fundamental theorem for System F is presented which can be instantiated to obtain proofs of weak β and βηnormalization and normalization by evaluation. 1 Introduction and Related Work Dependently typed lambdacalculi have been successfully used as proof languages ..."
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Cited by 2 (2 self)
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Abstract. A general version of the fundamental theorem for System F is presented which can be instantiated to obtain proofs of weak β and βηnormalization and normalization by evaluation. 1 Introduction and Related Work Dependently typed lambdacalculi have been successfully used as proof languages in proof assistants like Agda [Nor07], Coq [INR07], LEGO [Pol94], and NuPrl [Ct86]. Since types may depend on values in these type theories, checking equality of types, which is crucial for type and, thus, proof checking, is nontrivial for these
Towards Normalization by Evaluation for the βηCalculus of Constructions
"... Abstract. We consider the Calculus of Constructions with typed betaeta equality and an algorithm which computes long normal forms. The normalization algorithm evaluates terms into a semantic domain, and reifies the values back to terms in normal form. To show termination, we interpret types as part ..."
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Cited by 2 (1 self)
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Abstract. We consider the Calculus of Constructions with typed betaeta equality and an algorithm which computes long normal forms. The normalization algorithm evaluates terms into a semantic domain, and reifies the values back to terms in normal form. To show termination, we interpret types as partial equivalence relations between values and type constructors as operators on PERs. This models also yields consistency of the betaetaCalculus of Constructions. The model construction can be carried out directly in impredicative type theory, enabling a formalization in Coq. 1