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19
Domains for Computation in Mathematics, Physics and Exact Real Arithmetic
 Bulletin of Symbolic Logic
, 1997
"... We present a survey of the recent applications of continuous domains for providing simple computational models for classical spaces in mathematics including the real line, countably based locally compact spaces, complete separable metric spaces, separable Banach spaces and spaces of probability dist ..."
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Cited by 48 (10 self)
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We present a survey of the recent applications of continuous domains for providing simple computational models for classical spaces in mathematics including the real line, countably based locally compact spaces, complete separable metric spaces, separable Banach spaces and spaces of probability distributions. It is shown how these models have a logical and effective presentation and how they are used to give a computational framework in several areas in mathematics and physics. These include fractal geometry, where new results on existence and uniqueness of attractors and invariant distributions have been obtained, measure and integration theory, where a generalization of the Riemann theory of integration has been developed, and real arithmetic, where a feasible setting for exact computer arithmetic has been formulated. We give a number of algorithms for computation in the theory of iterated function systems with applications in statistical physics and in period doubling route to chao...
A DomainTheoretic Approach to Computability on the Real Line
, 1997
"... In recent years, there has been a considerable amount of work on using continuous domains in real analysis. Most notably are the development of the generalized Riemann integral with applications in fractal geometry, several extensions of the programming language PCF with a real number data type, and ..."
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Cited by 43 (8 self)
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In recent years, there has been a considerable amount of work on using continuous domains in real analysis. Most notably are the development of the generalized Riemann integral with applications in fractal geometry, several extensions of the programming language PCF with a real number data type, and a framework and an implementation of a package for exact real number arithmetic. Based on recursion theory we present here a precise and direct formulation of effective representation of real numbers by continuous domains, which is equivalent to the representation of real numbers by algebraic domains as in the work of StoltenbergHansen and Tucker. We use basic ingredients of an effective theory of continuous domains to spell out notions of computability for the reals and for functions on the real line. We prove directly that our approach is equivalent to the established Turingmachine based approach which dates back to Grzegorczyk and Lacombe, is used by PourEl & Richards in their found...
A New Representation for Exact Real Numbers
, 1997
"... We develop the theoretical foundation of a new representation of real numbers based on the infinite composition of linear fractional transformations (lft), equivalently the infiite product of matrices, with nonnegative coefficients. Any rational interval in the one point compactification of the rea ..."
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Cited by 42 (8 self)
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We develop the theoretical foundation of a new representation of real numbers based on the infinite composition of linear fractional transformations (lft), equivalently the infiite product of matrices, with nonnegative coefficients. Any rational interval in the one point compactification of the real line, represented by the unit circle S¹, is expressed as the image of the base interval [0�1] under an lft. A sequence of shrinking nested intervals is then represented by an infinite product of matrices with integer coefficients such that the first socalled sign matrix determines an interval on which the real number lies. The subsequent socalled digit matrices have nonnegative integer coe cients and successively re ne that interval. Based on the classi cation of lft's according to their conjugacy classes and their geometric dynamics, we show that there is a canonical choice of four sign matrices which are generated by rotation of S¹ by =4. Furthermore, the ordinary signed digit representation of real numbers in a given base induces a canonical choice of digit matrices.
Semantics of Exact Real Arithmetic
, 1997
"... In this paper, we incorporate a representation of the nonnegative extended real numbers based on the composition of linear fractional transformations with nonnegative integer coefficients into the Programming Language for Computable Functions (PCF) with products. We present two models for the exten ..."
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Cited by 29 (8 self)
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In this paper, we incorporate a representation of the nonnegative extended real numbers based on the composition of linear fractional transformations with nonnegative integer coefficients into the Programming Language for Computable Functions (PCF) with products. We present two models for the extended language and show that they are computationally adequate with respect to the operational semantics.
Properly injective spaces and function spaces
 TO APPEAR IN TOPOLOGY AND ITS APPLICATIONS
, 1997
"... Given an injective space D (a continuous lattice endowed with the Scott topology) and a subspace embedding j: X → Y, Dana Scott asked whether the higherorder function [X → D] → [Y → D] which takes a continuous map f: X → D to its greatest continuous extension ¯ f: Y → D along j is Scott continuous ..."
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Cited by 27 (12 self)
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Given an injective space D (a continuous lattice endowed with the Scott topology) and a subspace embedding j: X → Y, Dana Scott asked whether the higherorder function [X → D] → [Y → D] which takes a continuous map f: X → D to its greatest continuous extension ¯ f: Y → D along j is Scott continuous. In this case the extension map is a subspace embedding. We show that the extension map is Scott continuous iff D is the trivial onepoint space or j is a proper map in the sense of Hofmann and Lawson. In order to avoid the ambiguous expression “proper subspace embedding”, we refer to proper maps as finitary maps. We show that the finitary sober subspaces of the injective spaces are exactly the stably locally compact spaces. Moreover, the injective spaces over finitary embeddings are the algebras of the upper power space monad on the category of sober spaces. These coincide with the retracts of upper power spaces of sober spaces. In the full subcategory of locally compact sober spaces, these are known to be the continuous meetsemilattices. In the full subcategory of stably locally compact spaces these are again the continuous lattices. The above characterization of the injective spaces over finitary embeddings is an instance of a general result on injective objects in posetenriched categories with the structure of a KZmonad established in this paper, which we also apply to various full subcategories closed under the upper power space construction and to the upper and lower power locale monads. The above results also hold for the injective spaces over dense subspace embeddings (continuous Scott domains). Moreover, we show that every sober space has a smallest finitary dense sober subspace (its support). The support always contains the subspace of maximal points, and in the stably locally compact case (which includes densely injective spaces) it is the subspace of maximal points iff that subspace is compact.
Computing with Real Numbers  I. The LFT Approach to Real Number Computation  II. A Domain Framework for Computational Geometry
 PROC APPSEM SUMMER SCHOOL IN PORTUGAL
, 2002
"... We introduce, in Part I, a number representation suitable for exact real number computation, consisting of an exponent and a mantissa, which is an in nite stream of signed digits, based on the interval [ 1; 1]. Numerical operations are implemented in terms of linear fractional transformations ( ..."
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Cited by 16 (1 self)
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We introduce, in Part I, a number representation suitable for exact real number computation, consisting of an exponent and a mantissa, which is an in nite stream of signed digits, based on the interval [ 1; 1]. Numerical operations are implemented in terms of linear fractional transformations (LFT's). We derive lower and upper bounds for the number of argument digits that are needed to obtain a desired number of result digits of a computation, which imply that the complexity of LFT application is that of multiplying nbit integers. In Part II, we present an accessible account of a domaintheoretic approach to computational geometry and solid modelling which provides a datatype for designing robust geometric algorithms, illustrated here by the convex hull algorithm.
Contractivity of Linear Fractional Transformations
 Third Real Numbers and Computers Conference (RNC3
, 1998
"... One possible approach to exact real arithmetic is to use linear fractional transformations (LFT's) to represent real numbers and computations on real numbers. Recursive expressions built from LFT's are only convergent (i.e., denote a welldefined real number) if the involved LFT's are sufficiently c ..."
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Cited by 8 (3 self)
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One possible approach to exact real arithmetic is to use linear fractional transformations (LFT's) to represent real numbers and computations on real numbers. Recursive expressions built from LFT's are only convergent (i.e., denote a welldefined real number) if the involved LFT's are sufficiently contractive. In this paper, we define a notion of contractivity for LFT's. It is used for convergence theorems and for the analysis and improvement of algorithms for elementary functions. Keywords : Exact Real Arithmetic, Linear Fractional Transformations 1 Introduction Linear Fractional Transformations (LFT's) provide an elegant approach to real number arithmetic [8, 17, 11, 14, 12, 6]. Onedimensional LFT's x 7! ax+c bx+d are used in the representation of real numbers and to implement basic unary functions, while twodimensional LFT's (x; y) 7! axy+cx+ey+g bxy+dx+fy+h provide binary operations such as addition and multiplication, and can be combined to obtain infinite expression trees ...
Reducibility of Domain Representations and CantorWeihrauch Domain Representations
, 2006
"... We introduce a notion of reducibility of representations of topological spaces and study some basic properties of this notion for domain representations. A representation reduces to another if its representing map factors through the other representation. Reductions form a preorder on representatio ..."
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Cited by 8 (4 self)
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We introduce a notion of reducibility of representations of topological spaces and study some basic properties of this notion for domain representations. A representation reduces to another if its representing map factors through the other representation. Reductions form a preorder on representations. A spectrum is a class of representations divided by the equivalence relation induced by reductions. We establish some basic properties of spectra, such as, nontriviality. Equivalent representations represent the same set of functions on the represented space. Within a class of representations, a representation is universal if all representations in the class reduce to it. We show that notions of admissibility, considered both for domains and within Weihrauch’s TTE, are universality concepts in the appropriate spectra. Viewing TTE representations as domain representations, the reduction notion here is a natural generalisation of the one from TTE. To illustrate the framework, we consider some domain representations of real numbers and show that the usual interval domain representation, which is universal among dense representations, does not reduce to various Cantor domain representations. On the other hand, however, we show that a substructure of the interval domain more suitable for efficient computation of operations is equivalent to the usual interval domain with respect to reducibility. 1.
Integration in real PCF
 Information and Computation
, 1996
"... Real PCF is an extension of the programming language PCF with a data type for real numbers. Although a Real PCF definable real number cannot be computed in finitely many steps, it is possible to compute an arbitrarily small rational interval containing the real number in a sufficiently large number ..."
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Cited by 8 (4 self)
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Real PCF is an extension of the programming language PCF with a data type for real numbers. Although a Real PCF definable real number cannot be computed in finitely many steps, it is possible to compute an arbitrarily small rational interval containing the real number in a sufficiently large number of steps. Based on a domaintheoretic approach to integration, we show how to define integration in Real PCF. We propose two approaches to integration in Real PCF. One consists in adding integration as primitive. The other consists in adding a primitive for function maximization and then recursively defining integration from maximization. In both cases we have a computational adequacy theorem for the corresponding extension of Real PCF. Moreover, based on previous work on Real PCF definability, we show that Real PCF extended with the maximization operator is universal. 1