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101
A MicroPayment Scheme Encouraging Collaboration in MultiHop Cellular Networks
, 2003
"... We propose a micropayment scheme for multihop cellular networks that encourages collaboration in packet forwarding by letting users benefit from relaying others' packets. At the same time as proposing mechanisms for detecting and rewarding collaboration, we introduce appropriate mechanisms for ..."
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Cited by 98 (8 self)
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We propose a micropayment scheme for multihop cellular networks that encourages collaboration in packet forwarding by letting users benefit from relaying others' packets. At the same time as proposing mechanisms for detecting and rewarding collaboration, we introduce appropriate mechanisms for detecting and punishing various forms of abuse. We show that the resulting scheme  which is exceptionally lightweight  makes collaboration rational and cheating undesirable.
Minimumenergy multicast in mobile ad hoc networks using network coding
 IEEE Trans. Commun
, 2005
"... Abstract — The minimum energy required to transmit a bit of information through a network characterizes the most economical way to communicate in a network. In this paper, we show that under a layered model of wireless networks, the minimum energyperbit for multicasting in a mobile ad hoc network c ..."
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Cited by 87 (2 self)
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Abstract — The minimum energy required to transmit a bit of information through a network characterizes the most economical way to communicate in a network. In this paper, we show that under a layered model of wireless networks, the minimum energyperbit for multicasting in a mobile ad hoc network can be found by a linear program; the minimum energyperbit can be attained by performing network coding. Compared with conventional routing solutions, network coding not only promises a potentially lower energyperbit, but also enables the optimal solution to be found in polynomial time, in sharp contrast with the NPhardness of constructing the minimumenergy multicast tree as the optimal routing solution. We further show that the minimum energy multicast formulation is equivalent to a cost minimization with linear edgebased pricing, where the edge prices are the energyperbits of the corresponding physical broadcast links. This paper also investigates minimum energy multicasting with routing. Due to the linearity of the pricing scheme, the minimum energyperbit for routing is achievable by using a single distribution tree. A characterization of the admissible rate region for routing with a single tree is presented. The minimum energyperbit for multicasting with routing is found by an integer linear program. We show that the relaxation of this integer linear program, studied earlier in the Steiner tree literature, can now be interpreted as the optimization for minimum energy multicasting with network coding. In short, this paper presents a unifying study of minimum energy multicasting with network coding and routing. Index Terms — Network coding, routing, multicast, Steiner tree, wireless ad hoc networks, energy efficiency, mobility.
LowInterference Topology Control for Wireless Ad Hoc Networks
 ACM Wireless Networks
, 2005
"... supported by NSF CCR0311174. Abstract — Topology control has been well studied in wireless ad hoc networks. However, only a few topology control methods take into account the low interference as a goal of the methods. Some researchers tried to reduce the interference by lowering node energy consump ..."
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Cited by 56 (0 self)
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supported by NSF CCR0311174. Abstract — Topology control has been well studied in wireless ad hoc networks. However, only a few topology control methods take into account the low interference as a goal of the methods. Some researchers tried to reduce the interference by lowering node energy consumption (i.e. by reducing the transmission power) or by devising low degree topology controls, but none of those protocols can guarantee low interference. Recently, Burkhart et al. [?] proposed several methods to construct topologies whose maximum link interference is minimized while the topology is connected or is a spanner for Euclidean length. In this paper we give algorithms to construct a network topology for wireless ad hoc network such that the maximum (or average) link (or node) interference of the topology is either minimized or approximately minimized. Index Terms — Topology control, interference, wireless ad hoc networks.
Minimum energy disjoint path routing in wireless adhoc networks
 in Proceedings of the 9th Annual International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking
, 2003
"... We develop algorithms for finding minimum energy disjoint paths in an allwireless network, for both the node and linkdisjoint cases. Our major results include a novel polynomial time algorithm that optimally solves the minimum energy 2 linkdisjoint paths problem, as well as a polynomial time algor ..."
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Cited by 48 (1 self)
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We develop algorithms for finding minimum energy disjoint paths in an allwireless network, for both the node and linkdisjoint cases. Our major results include a novel polynomial time algorithm that optimally solves the minimum energy 2 linkdisjoint paths problem, as well as a polynomial time algorithm for the minimum energy k nodedisjoint paths problem. In addition, we present efficient heuristic algorithms for both problems. Our results show that linkdisjoint paths consume substantially less energy than nodedisjoint paths. We also found that the incremental energy of additional linkdisjoint paths is decreasing. This finding is somewhat surprising due to the fact that in general networks additional paths are typically longer than the shortest path. However, in a wireless network, additional paths can be obtained at lower energy due to the broadcast nature of the wireless medium. Finally, we discuss issues regarding distributed implementation and present distributed versions of the optimal centralized algorithms presented in the paper.
A Network Coding Approach to Energy Efficient Broadcasting: from Theory to Practice
 IN PROC. OF IEEE INFOCOM
, 2006
"... We show that network coding allows to realize energy savings in a wireless adhoc network, when each node of the network is a source that wants to transmit information to all other nodes. Energy efficiency directly affects battery life and thus is a critical design parameter for wireless networks. W ..."
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Cited by 46 (9 self)
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We show that network coding allows to realize energy savings in a wireless adhoc network, when each node of the network is a source that wants to transmit information to all other nodes. Energy efficiency directly affects battery life and thus is a critical design parameter for wireless networks. We propose an implementable method for performing network coding in such a setting. We analyze theoretical cases in detail, and use the insights gained to propose a practical, fully distributed method for realistic wireless adhoc scenarios. We address practical issues such as setting the forwarding factor, managing generations, and impact of transmission range. We use theoretical analysis and packet level simulation.
Wireless Broadcasting Using Network Coding
"... Traditional approaches to transmit information reliably over an errorprone network employ either Forward Error Correction (FEC) or retransmission techniques. In this paper we consider an application of network coding to increase the bandwidth efficiency of reliable broadcast in a wireless network ..."
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Cited by 34 (1 self)
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Traditional approaches to transmit information reliably over an errorprone network employ either Forward Error Correction (FEC) or retransmission techniques. In this paper we consider an application of network coding to increase the bandwidth efficiency of reliable broadcast in a wireless network. In particular, we propose two schemes which employ network coding to reduce the number of retransmissions as a result of packet losses. Our proposed schemes combine different lost packets from different receivers in such a way that multiple receivers are able to recover their lost packets with one transmission by the source. The advantages of the proposed schemes over the traditional wireless broadcast are shown through simulations and theoretical analysis. Specifically, we provide a few results on the retransmission overhead of the proposed schemes under different channel conditions.
Information Dissemination in Powerconstrained Wireless Networks
, 2006
"... Dissemination of common information through broadcasting is an integral part of wireless network operations such as query of interested events, resource discovery and code update. In this paper, we characterize the behavior of information dissemination in powerconstrained wireless networks by defin ..."
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Cited by 33 (2 self)
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Dissemination of common information through broadcasting is an integral part of wireless network operations such as query of interested events, resource discovery and code update. In this paper, we characterize the behavior of information dissemination in powerconstrained wireless networks by defining two quantities, i.e., broadcast capacity and information diffusion rate and derive fundamental limits in both random extended and dense networks. We find that using multihop relay, the rate of broadcasting continuous stream is Θ(log(n) − α 2) in extended networks; while direct singlehop broadcast is efficient for dense networks. Furthermore, regardless of the density, information can diffuse at constant speed, i.e., Θ(1) in both extended and dense networks. The theoretical bounds obtained and proof techniques are instrumental to the modeling and design of efficient wireless network protocols.
Principles and protocols for power control in wireless ad hoc networks
 IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, Special Issue on Wireless Ad Hoc Networks (Part I
, 2005
"... Abstract—Transmit power control is a prototypical example of a crosslayer design problem. The transmit power level affects signal quality and, thus, impacts the physical layer, determines the neighboring nodes that can hear the packet and, thus, the network layer affects interference which causes c ..."
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Cited by 32 (0 self)
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Abstract—Transmit power control is a prototypical example of a crosslayer design problem. The transmit power level affects signal quality and, thus, impacts the physical layer, determines the neighboring nodes that can hear the packet and, thus, the network layer affects interference which causes congestion and, thus, affects the transport layer. It is also key to several performance measures such as throughput, delay, and energy consumption. The challenge is to determine where in the architecture the power control problem is to be situated, to determine the appropriate power level by studying its impact on several performance issues, to provide a solution which deals properly with the multiple effects of transmit power control, and finally, to provide a software architecture for realizing the solution. We distill some basic principles on power control, which inform the subsequent design process. We then detail the design of a sequence of increasingly complex protocols, which address the multidimensional ramifications of the power control problem. Many of these protocols have been implemented, and may be the only implementations for power control in a real system. It is hoped that the approach in this paper may also be of use in other topical problems in crosslayer design. Index Terms—Design principles, Linux implementation, power control.
Lowcomplexity energyefficient broadcasting in wireless adhoc networks using network coding
 In Proc. Workshop on Network Coding, Theory, and Applications
, 2005
"... Abstract — Energy efficiency, i.e., the amount of battery energy consumed to transmit bits across a wireless link, is a critical design parameter for wireless adhoc networks. We examine the problem of broadcasting information to all nodes in an adhoc network, when a large percentage of the nodes a ..."
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Cited by 32 (6 self)
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Abstract — Energy efficiency, i.e., the amount of battery energy consumed to transmit bits across a wireless link, is a critical design parameter for wireless adhoc networks. We examine the problem of broadcasting information to all nodes in an adhoc network, when a large percentage of the nodes act as sources. We theoretically quantify the energy savings that network coding can offer for the cases of two regular topologies. We then propose lowcomplexity distributed algorithms, and demonstrate through simulation that for random networks, network coding can in fact offer significant benefits in terms of energy consumption. I.
Fast distributed algorithm for convergecast in ad hoc geometric radio networks
 Proc. 2nd Int. Conf. on Wireless on Demand Network Systems and Service (WONS
, 2005
"... Abstract — Wireless ad hoc radio networks have gained a lot of attention in recent years. We consider geometric networks, where nodes are located in a euclidean plane. We assume that each node has a variable transmission range and can learn the distance to the closest neighbor. We also assume that n ..."
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Cited by 29 (0 self)
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Abstract — Wireless ad hoc radio networks have gained a lot of attention in recent years. We consider geometric networks, where nodes are located in a euclidean plane. We assume that each node has a variable transmission range and can learn the distance to the closest neighbor. We also assume that nodes have a special collision detection (CD) capability so that a transmitting node can detect a collision within its transmission range. We study the basic communication problem of collecting data from all nodes called convergecast. Recently, there appeared many new applications such as realtime multimedia, battlefield communications and rescue operations that impose stringent delay requirements on the convergecast time. We measure the latency of convergecast, that is the number of time steps needed to collect the data in any nnode network. We propose a very simple randomized distributed algorithm that has the expected running time O(log n). We also show that this bound is tight and any algorithm needs Ω(log n) time steps while performing convergecast in an arbitrary network. One of the most important problems in wireless ad hoc networks is to minimize the energy consumption, which maximizes the network lifetime. We study the tradeoff between the energy and the latency of convergecast. We show that our algorithm consumes at most O(n log n) times the minimum energy. We also demonstrate that for a line topology the minimum energy convergecast takes n − 1 time steps while any algorithm performing convergecast within O(log n) time steps requires Ω(n) times the minimum energy.