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A Survey on Cellular Automata
, 2003
"... A cellular automaton is a decentralized computing model providing an excellent platform for performing complex computation with the help of only local information. Researchers, scientists and practitioners from different fields have exploited the CA paradigm of local information, decentralized contr ..."
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A cellular automaton is a decentralized computing model providing an excellent platform for performing complex computation with the help of only local information. Researchers, scientists and practitioners from different fields have exploited the CA paradigm of local information, decentralized control and universal computation for modeling different applications. This article provides a survey of available literature of some of the methodologies employed by researchers to utilize cellular automata for modeling purposes. The survey introduces the different types of cellular automata being used for modeling and the analytical methods used to predict its global behavior from its local configurations. It further gives a detailed sketch of the efforts undertaken to configure the local settings of CA from a given global situation; the problem which has been traditionally termed as the inverse problem. Finally, it presents the different fields in which CA have been applied. The extensive bibliography provided with the article will be of help to the new entrant as well as researchers working in this field.
LowCost RFID Systems: Confronting Security and Privacy
 In: AutoID Labs Research Workshop
, 2005
"... In the implementation of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) systems concerns have been raised regarding information security and violations of enduser privacy. There is a large collection of literature available on efficient and inexpensive cryptographic engines, but they are still extravagant s ..."
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Cited by 18 (1 self)
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In the implementation of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) systems concerns have been raised regarding information security and violations of enduser privacy. There is a large collection of literature available on efficient and inexpensive cryptographic engines, but they are still extravagant solutions for low cost RFID systems. Security and privacy provided by low cost RFID is both directly and indirectly limited by a number of factors that are unique to low cost RFID. This paper examines security and privacy issues regarding RFID and presents the challenges that arise in view of the unique environment presented by low cost RFID systems.
A cellular automaton based fast oneway hash function suitable for hardware implementation
 In Public Key Cryptography, number 1431 in Lecture Notes in Computer Science
, 1998
"... Abstract. Oneway hash functions are an important toolinachieving authentication and data integrity. The aim of this paper is to propose anovel oneway hash function based on cellular automata whose cryptographic properties have been extensivelystudiedover the past decade or so. Furthermore, securit ..."
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Abstract. Oneway hash functions are an important toolinachieving authentication and data integrity. The aim of this paper is to propose anovel oneway hash function based on cellular automata whose cryptographic properties have been extensivelystudiedover the past decade or so. Furthermore, security of the proposed oneway hash function is analyzed by the use of very recently published results on applications of cellular automata in cryptography. The analysis indicates that the oneway hash function is secure against all known attacks. An important feature of the proposed oneway hash function is that it is especially suitable for compact and fast implementation in hardware, which is particularly attractive to emerging security applications that employ smart cards, such asdigital identi cation cards and electronic cash payment protocols, 1
Comments on "Theory and Applications of Cellular Automata in Cryptography"
, 1997
"... The cipher systems based on Cellular Automata proposed by Nandi et al. [3] are affine and are insecure. Index Terms  Cryptography, block ciphers, stream ciphers, cellular automata, affine group. This author's research supported by EPSRC Research Grant No. GR/H23719. y This author ackno ..."
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The cipher systems based on Cellular Automata proposed by Nandi et al. [3] are affine and are insecure. Index Terms  Cryptography, block ciphers, stream ciphers, cellular automata, affine group. This author's research supported by EPSRC Research Grant No. GR/H23719. y This author acknowledges the support of the Nuffield Foundation z This author's research supported by a Lloyd's of London Tercentenary Foundation Research Fellowship. In [3], the authors present cryptographic transformations based on Cellular Automata. These transformations are used to define block ciphers and stream ciphers. It is claimed that the cryptographic transformations generate the alternating group and that the cryptosystems are secure. Both of these claims are incorrect. The systems in [3] are based on permutations of the vector space VN of dimension N over GF (2). These permutations are obtained from Cellular Automata. The specific permutations used (called fundamental transformations in [3]) are...
An efficient reconfigurable multiplier architecture for Galois field
 In Proceedings of the Microelectronics Journal
"... This paper describes an efficient architecture of a reconfigurable bitserial polynomial basis multiplier for Galois field GFð2mÞ; where 1, m # M: The value m; of the irreducible polynomial degree, can be changed and so, can be configured and programmed. The value of M determines the maximum size th ..."
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This paper describes an efficient architecture of a reconfigurable bitserial polynomial basis multiplier for Galois field GFð2mÞ; where 1, m # M: The value m; of the irreducible polynomial degree, can be changed and so, can be configured and programmed. The value of M determines the maximum size that the multiplier can support. The advantages of the proposed architecture are (i) the high order of flexibility, which allows an easy configuration for different field sizes, and (ii) the low hardware complexity, which results in small area. By using the gated clock technique, significant reduction of the total multiplier power consumption is achieved.
An Evolutionary Approach to the Design of Controllable Cellular Automata Structure for Random Number Generation
 IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation
, 2003
"... Abstract—Cellular automata (CA) has been used in pseudorandom number generation for over a decade. Recent studies show that twodimensional (2D) CA pseudorandom number generators (PRNGs) may generate better random sequences than conventional onedimensional (1D) CA PRNGs, but they are more complex ..."
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Abstract—Cellular automata (CA) has been used in pseudorandom number generation for over a decade. Recent studies show that twodimensional (2D) CA pseudorandom number generators (PRNGs) may generate better random sequences than conventional onedimensional (1D) CA PRNGs, but they are more complex to implement in hardware than 1D CA PRNGs. In this paper, we propose a new class of 1D CA—controllable cellular automata (CCA)—without much deviation from the structural simplicity of conventional 1D CA. We first give a general definition of CCA and then introduce two types of CCA: CCA0 and CCA2. Our initial study shows that these two CCA PRNGs have better randomness quality than conventional 1D CA PRNGs, but that their randomness is affected by their structures. To find good CCA0/CCA2 structures for pseudorandom number generation, we evolve them using evolutionary multiobjective optimization techniques. Three different algorithms are presented. One makes use of an aggregation function; the other two are based on the vectorevaluated genetic algorithm. Evolution results show that these three algorithms all perform well. Applying a set of randomness tests on the evolved CCA PRNGs, we demonstrate that their randomness is better than that of 1D CA PRNGs and can be comparable to that of 2D CA PRNGs. Index Terms—Controllable cellular automata, genetic algorithms (GAs), multiobjective optimization. CA CCA
A Family of Controllable Cellular Automata for Pseudorandom Number Generation
"... evaluate the randomness of these CCA PRNGs. The results show that their randomness is better than that of conventional CA and PCA PRNGs while they do not lose the structure simplicity of 1d CA. Moreover, their randomness can be comparable to that of 2d CA PRNGs. Furthermore, we integrate six diffe ..."
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evaluate the randomness of these CCA PRNGs. The results show that their randomness is better than that of conventional CA and PCA PRNGs while they do not lose the structure simplicity of 1d CA. Moreover, their randomness can be comparable to that of 2d CA PRNGs. Furthermore, we integrate six different types of CCA PRNGs to form CCA PRNG groups to see if the randomness quality of such groups could exceed that of any individual CCA PRNG. Genetic Algorithm (GA) is used to evolve the configuration of the CCA PRNG groups. Randomness test results on the evolved CCA PRNG groups show that the randomness of the evolved groups is further improved compared with any individual CCA PRNG. Key words: cellular automata, randomness test, pseudorandom number generator, genetic algorithm
Efficient Cellular Automata Based Versatile Multiplier for GF(2^m)
 Journal of Information Science and Engineering
, 2002
"... this paper, a lowcomplexity Programmable Cellular Automata (PCA) based versatile modular multiplier in GF(2 ) is presented. The proposed versatile multiplier increases flexibility in using the same multiplier in different security environments, and it reduces the user's cost. Moreover, t ..."
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this paper, a lowcomplexity Programmable Cellular Automata (PCA) based versatile modular multiplier in GF(2 ) is presented. The proposed versatile multiplier increases flexibility in using the same multiplier in different security environments, and it reduces the user's cost. Moreover, the multiplier can be easily extended to high order of m for more security, and lowcost serial implementation is feasible in restricted computing environments, such as smart cards and wireless devices
Cryptography by Cellular Automata or How Fast Can Complexity Emerge in Nature?
"... Computation in the physical world is restricted by the following spatial locality constraint: In a single unit of time, information can only travel a bounded distance in space. A simple computational model which captures this constraint is a cellular automaton: A discrete dynamical system in which c ..."
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Computation in the physical world is restricted by the following spatial locality constraint: In a single unit of time, information can only travel a bounded distance in space. A simple computational model which captures this constraint is a cellular automaton: A discrete dynamical system in which cells are placed on a grid and the state of each cell is updated via a local deterministic rule that depends only on the few cells within its close neighborhood. Cellular automata are commonly used to model real world systems in nature and society. Cellular automata were shown to be capable of a highly complex behavior. However, it is not clear how fast this complexity can evolve and how common it is with respect to all possible initial configurations. We examine this question from a computational perspective, identifying “complexity ” with computational intractability. More concretely, we consider an ncell automaton with a random initial configuration, and study the minimal number of computation steps t = t(n) after which the following problems can become computationally hard: • The inversion problem. Given the configuration y at time t, find an initial configuration x which leads to y in t steps.
LCASE: Lightweight Cellular Automatabased Symmetrickey Encryption
, 2008
"... We propose a lightweight block cipher that supports 128bit block size with 128, 192 and 256bit keys, to confirm with the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) specification. All components of LCASE are chosen to be cellular automatabased so as to achieve higher parallelism and simplify the implemen ..."
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We propose a lightweight block cipher that supports 128bit block size with 128, 192 and 256bit keys, to confirm with the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) specification. All components of LCASE are chosen to be cellular automatabased so as to achieve higher parallelism and simplify the implementation. Apart from that, the other virtues of LCASE are its high speed and cheap cost along with being resistant against timing analysis attacks.