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Static Inference of Modes and Data Dependencies in Logic Programs
 ACM Transactions on Programming Languages and Systems
, 1989
"... Abstract: Mode and data dependency analyses find many applications in the generation of efficient executable code for logic programs. For example, mode information can be used to generate specialized unification instructions where permissible; to detect determinacy and functionality of programs; to ..."
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Cited by 93 (8 self)
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Abstract: Mode and data dependency analyses find many applications in the generation of efficient executable code for logic programs. For example, mode information can be used to generate specialized unification instructions where permissible; to detect determinacy and functionality of programs; to generate index structures more intelligently; to reduce the amount of runtime tests in systems that support goal suspension; and in the integration of logic and functional languages. Data dependency information can be used for various sourcelevel optimizing transformations, to improve backtracking behavior, and to parallelize logic programs. This paper describes and proves correct an algorithm for the static inference of modes and data dependencies in a program. The algorithm is shown to be quite efficient for programs commonly encountered in practice.
Operational Semantics for Declarative MultiParadigm Languages
 Journal of Symbolic Computation
, 2005
"... Abstract. In this paper we define an operational semantics for functional logic languages covering notions like laziness, sharing, concurrency, nondeterminism, etc. Such a semantics is not only important to provide appropriate language definitions to reason about programs and check the correctness ..."
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Cited by 67 (29 self)
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Abstract. In this paper we define an operational semantics for functional logic languages covering notions like laziness, sharing, concurrency, nondeterminism, etc. Such a semantics is not only important to provide appropriate language definitions to reason about programs and check the correctness of implementations but it is also a basis to develop languagespecific tools, like program tracers, profilers, optimizers, etc. First, we define a &quot;bigstep &quot; semantics in natural style to relate expressions and their evaluated results. Since this semantics is not sufficient to cover concurrency, search strategies, or to reason about costs associated to particular computations, we also define a &quot;smallstep &quot; operational semantics covering the features of modern functional logic languages.
Combinations of Abstract Domains for Logic Programming: Open Product and Generic Pattern Construction
, 2000
"... Abstract interpretation is a systematic methodology to design static program analysis which has been studied extensively in the logic programming community, because of the potential for optimizations in logic programming compilers and the sophistication of the analyses which require conceptual suppo ..."
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Cited by 65 (21 self)
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Abstract interpretation is a systematic methodology to design static program analysis which has been studied extensively in the logic programming community, because of the potential for optimizations in logic programming compilers and the sophistication of the analyses which require conceptual support. With the emergence of e#cient generic abstract interpretation algorithms for logic programming, the main burden in building an analysis is the abstract domain which gives a safe approximation of the concrete domain of computation. However, accurate abstract domains for logic programming are often complex not only because of the relational nature of logic programming languages and of their typical interprocedural control#ow, but also because of the variety of analyses to perform, their interdependence, and the need to maintain structural information. The purpose of this paper is to propose conceptual and software support for the design of abstract domains. It contains two main contributions: the notion of open product and a generic pattern domain. The open product is a new, language independent, way of combining abstract domains allowing each combined domain to bene#t from information from the other components through the notions of queries and open operations. It provides a framework to approximate Cousots' reduced product, while reusing existing implementations and providing methodological guidance on how to build domains for interaction and composition. It is orthogonal and complementary to Granger's product which improves the direct product by a decreasing iteration sequence based on re#nements but lets the domains interact only after the individual operations. The generic pattern domain Pat(R) automatically upgrades a domain D with structural information yielding a m...
A Mathematical Definition of Full Prolog
, 1994
"... The paper provides a mathematical yet simple model for the full programming language Prolog, as apparently intended by the ISO draft standard proposal. The model includes all control constructs, database operations, solution collecting predicates and error handling facilities, typically ignored by p ..."
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Cited by 58 (9 self)
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The paper provides a mathematical yet simple model for the full programming language Prolog, as apparently intended by the ISO draft standard proposal. The model includes all control constructs, database operations, solution collecting predicates and error handling facilities, typically ignored by previous theoretical treatments of the language. We add to this the ubiquitous boxmodel debugger. The model directly reflects the basic intuitions underlying the language and can be used as a primary mathematical definition of Prolog. The core of the model has been applied for mathematical analysis of implementations, for clarification of disputable language features and for specifying extensions of the language in various directions. The model may provide guidance for extending the established theory of logic programming to the extralogical features of Prolog. Introduction One of the original aims of mathematical semantics was to provide the programmer with a set of mathematical models and...
Functional computations in logic programs
 ACM Transactions on Programming Languages and Systems
, 1989
"... Abstract: While the ability to simulate nondeterminism and compute multiple solutions for a single query is a powerful and attractive feature of logic programming languages, it is expensive in both time and space. Since programs in such languages are very often functional, i.e. do not produce more t ..."
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Cited by 53 (11 self)
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Abstract: While the ability to simulate nondeterminism and compute multiple solutions for a single query is a powerful and attractive feature of logic programming languages, it is expensive in both time and space. Since programs in such languages are very often functional, i.e. do not produce more than one distinct solution for a single input, this overhead is especially undesirable. This paper describes how programs may be analyzed statically to determine which literals and predicates are functional, and how the program may then be optimized using this information. Our notion of ‘‘functionality’ ’ subsumes the notion of ‘‘determinacy’ ’ that has been considered by various researchers. Our algorithm is less reliant on language features such as the cut, and thus extends more easily to parallel execution strategies, than others that have been proposed.
Generic Abstract Interpretation Algorithms for Prolog: Two Optimization Techniques and their Experimental Evaluation
, 1993
"... ..."
Transformation of Logic Programs
 Handbook of Logic in Artificial Intelligence and Logic Programming
, 1998
"... Program transformation is a methodology for deriving correct and efficient programs from specifications. In this chapter, we will look at the so called 'rules + strategies' approach, and we will report on the main techniques which have been introduced in the literature for that approach, i ..."
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Cited by 40 (4 self)
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Program transformation is a methodology for deriving correct and efficient programs from specifications. In this chapter, we will look at the so called 'rules + strategies' approach, and we will report on the main techniques which have been introduced in the literature for that approach, in the case of logic programs. We will also present some examples of program transformation, and we hope that through those examples the reader may acquire some familiarity with the techniques we will describe.
Why use evolving algebras for hardware and software engineering?
, 1995
"... In this paper I answer the question how evolving algebras can be used for the design and analysis of complex hardware and software systems. I present the salient features of this new method and illustrate them through several examples from my work on specification and verification of programming lan ..."
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Cited by 39 (4 self)
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In this paper I answer the question how evolving algebras can be used for the design and analysis of complex hardware and software systems. I present the salient features of this new method and illustrate them through several examples from my work on specification and verification of programming languages, compilers, protocols and architectures. The definition of a mathematical model for Hennessy and Patterson's RISC architecture DLX serves as a running example; this model is used in [24] to prove the correctness of instruction pipelining. I will point out the yet unexplored potential of the evolving algebra method for largescale industrial applications.
Continuation Semantics for Prolog with Cut
, 1989
"... We present a denotational continuation semantics for Prolog with cut. First a uniform language B is studied, which captures the control flow aspects of Prolog. The denotational semantics for B is proven equivalent to a transition system based operational semantics. The congruence proof relies on the ..."
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Cited by 39 (5 self)
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We present a denotational continuation semantics for Prolog with cut. First a uniform language B is studied, which captures the control flow aspects of Prolog. The denotational semantics for B is proven equivalent to a transition system based operational semantics. The congruence proof relies on the representation of the operational semantics as a chain of approximations and on a convenient induction principle. Finally, we interpret the abstract language B such that we obtain equivalent denotational and operational models for Prolog itself. Section 1 Introduction In the nice textbook of Lloyd [Ll] the cut, available in all Prologsystems, is described as a controversial control facility. The cut, added to the Horn clause logic for efficiency reasons, affects the completeness of the refutation procedure. Therefore the standard declarative semantics using Herbrand models does not adequately capture the computational aspects of the Prologlanguage. In the present paper we study the Prolog...