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Gaussian Laser Beams via Oblate Spheroidal Waves
"... Gaussian beams provide the simplest mathematical description of the essential features of a focused optical beam, by ignoring higherorder effects induced by apertures elsewhere in the system. Wavefunctions ψ(x,t)=ψ(x)e −iωt forGaussianlaserbeams[1,2,3,4,5,6,7,10,11,12] of angular frequency ω are ty ..."
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Gaussian beams provide the simplest mathematical description of the essential features of a focused optical beam, by ignoring higherorder effects induced by apertures elsewhere in the system. Wavefunctions ψ(x,t)=ψ(x)e −iωt forGaussianlaserbeams[1,2,3,4,5,6,7,10,11,12] of angular frequency ω are typically deduced in the paraxial approximation, meaning that in the far zone the functions are accurate only for angles θ with respect to the beam axis that are at most a few times the characteristic diffraction angle θ0 = λ πw0
Reports
"... The speed of light is trivially given as /c n, where c is the speed of light in free space and n is the refractive index of the medium. In free space, where 1,n = the speed of light is simply c. We show that the introduction of transverse structure to the light beam reduces the group velocity by an ..."
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The speed of light is trivially given as /c n, where c is the speed of light in free space and n is the refractive index of the medium. In free space, where 1,n = the speed of light is simply c. We show that the introduction of transverse structure to the light beam reduces the group velocity by an amount depending upon the aperture of the optical system. The delay corresponding to this reduction in the group velocity can be greater than the optical wavelength and consequently should not be confused with the ≈π Gouy phase shift (1, 2). To emphasize that this effect is both a linear and intrinsic property of light, we measure the delay as a function of the transverse spatial structure of single photons. The slowing down of light that we observe in free space should also not be confused with slow, or indeed fast, light
Reports
"... The speed of light is trivially given as /c n, where c is the speed of light in free space and n is the refractive index of the medium. In free space, where 1,n = the speed of light is simply c. We show that the introduction of transverse structure to the light beam reduces the group velocity by an ..."
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The speed of light is trivially given as /c n, where c is the speed of light in free space and n is the refractive index of the medium. In free space, where 1,n = the speed of light is simply c. We show that the introduction of transverse structure to the light beam reduces the group velocity by an amount depending upon the aperture of the optical system. The delay corresponding to this reduction in the group velocity can be greater than the optical wavelength and consequently should not be confused with the ≈π Gouy phase shift (1, 2). To emphasize that this effect is both a linear and intrinsic property of light, we measure the delay as a function of the transverse spatial structure of single photons. The slowing down of light that we observe in free space should also not be confused with slow, or indeed fast, light
Gouy phase for fullaperture spherical and cylindrical waves
, 2013
"... We investigate the Gouy phase shift for fullaperture waves converging to a focal point from all directions in two and three dimensions. We find a simple interpretation for the Gouy phase in this situation and show that it has a dramatic effect on reshaping sharply localized pulses. c © 2013 Optical ..."
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We investigate the Gouy phase shift for fullaperture waves converging to a focal point from all directions in two and three dimensions. We find a simple interpretation for the Gouy phase in this situation and show that it has a dramatic effect on reshaping sharply localized pulses. c © 2013 Optical Society of America OCIS codes: 070.7345, 050.5080 Gouy phase shift [1, 2] has been known for more than a century and it still attracts a lot of interest in the optical community. Its origin has been explained in different ways and contexts, for an overview see Ref. [3] and the references therein. Gouy phase is a phase shift of a converging wave obtained for instance by focusing light with a lens when passing through the focus. It turns out that the phase change of the wave upon passing through the focal point is smaller by pi compared to the situation if a plane wave were propagating instead. In other words, the local wave