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168
Tractable reasoning and efficient query answering in description logics: The DLLite family
 J. OF AUTOMATED REASONING
, 2007
"... We propose a new family of Description Logics (DLs), called DLLite, specifically tailored to capture basic ontology languages, while keeping low complexity of reasoning. Reasoning here means not only computing subsumption between concepts, and checking satisfiability of the whole knowledge base, b ..."
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Cited by 497 (123 self)
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We propose a new family of Description Logics (DLs), called DLLite, specifically tailored to capture basic ontology languages, while keeping low complexity of reasoning. Reasoning here means not only computing subsumption between concepts, and checking satisfiability of the whole knowledge base, but also answering complex queries (in particular, unions of conjunctive queries) over the instance level (ABox) of the DL knowledge base. We show that, for the DLs of the DLLite family, the usual DL reasoning tasks are polynomial in the size of the TBox, and query answering is LogSpace in the size of the ABox (i.e., in data complexity). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first result of polynomial time data complexity for query answering over DL knowledge bases. Notably our logics allow for a separation between TBox and ABox reasoning during query evaluation: the part of the process requiring TBox reasoning is independent of the ABox, and the part of the process requiring access to the ABox can be carried out by an SQL engine, thus taking advantage of the query optimization strategies provided by current Data Base Management Systems. Since it can be shown that even slight extensions to the logics of the DLLite family make query answering at least NLogSpace in data complexity, thus ruling out the possibility of using ontheshelf relational technology for query processing, we can conclude that the logics of the DLLite family are the maximal DLs supporting efficient query answering over large amounts of instances.
Bayesian Description Logics. In:
 Proc. of DL’14. CEUR Workshop Proceedings,
, 2014
"... Abstract This chapter considers, on the one hand, extensions of Description Logics by features not available in the basic framework, but considered important for using Description Logics as a modeling language. In particular, it addresses the extensions concerning: concrete domain constraints; moda ..."
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Cited by 394 (49 self)
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Abstract This chapter considers, on the one hand, extensions of Description Logics by features not available in the basic framework, but considered important for using Description Logics as a modeling language. In particular, it addresses the extensions concerning: concrete domain constraints; modal, epistemic, and temporal operators; probabilities and fuzzy logic; and defaults. On the other hand, it considers nonstandard inference problems for Description Logics, i.e., inference problems thatunlike subsumption or instance checkingare not available in all systems, but have turned out to be useful in applications. In particular, it addresses the nonstandard inference problems: least common subsumer and most specific concept; unification and matching of concepts; and rewriting.
Query Answering for OWLDL with Rules
 Journal of Web Semantics
, 2004
"... Both OWLDL and functionfree Horn rules are decidable fragments of firstorder logic with interesting, yet orthogonal expressive power. A combination of OWLDL and rules is desirable for the Semantic Web; however, it might easily lead to the undecidability of interesting reasoning problems. Here, w ..."
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Cited by 329 (28 self)
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Both OWLDL and functionfree Horn rules are decidable fragments of firstorder logic with interesting, yet orthogonal expressive power. A combination of OWLDL and rules is desirable for the Semantic Web; however, it might easily lead to the undecidability of interesting reasoning problems. Here, we present a decidable such combination where rules are required to be DLsafe: each variable in the rule is required to occur in a nonDLatom in the rule body. We discuss the expressive power of such a combination and present an algorithm for query answering in the related logic SHIQ extended with DLsafe rules, based on a reduction to disjunctive programs.
OntologyBased Integration of Information  A Survey of Existing Approaches
, 2001
"... We review the use on ontologies for the integration of heterogeneous information sources. Based on an indepth evaluation of existing approaches to this problem we discuss how ontologies are used to support the integration task. We evaluate and compare the languages used to represent the ontologies ..."
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Cited by 295 (2 self)
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We review the use on ontologies for the integration of heterogeneous information sources. Based on an indepth evaluation of existing approaches to this problem we discuss how ontologies are used to support the integration task. We evaluate and compare the languages used to represent the ontologies and the use of mappings between ontologies as well as to connect ontologies with information sources. We also enquire into ontology engineering methods and tools used to develop ontologies for information integration. Based on the results of our analysis we summarize the stateoftheart in ontologybased information integration and name areas of further research activities.
A Novel Combination of Answer Set Programming with Description Logics for the Semantic Web
 IN PROC. KR2004
, 2004
"... Abstract. We present a novel combination of disjunctive logic programs under the answer set semantics with description logics for the Semantic Web. The combination is based on a wellbalanced interface between disjunctive logic programs and description logics, which guarantees the decidability of th ..."
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Cited by 288 (60 self)
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Abstract. We present a novel combination of disjunctive logic programs under the answer set semantics with description logics for the Semantic Web. The combination is based on a wellbalanced interface between disjunctive logic programs and description logics, which guarantees the decidability of the resulting formalism without assuming syntactic restrictions. We show that the new formalism has very nice semantic properties. In particular, it faithfully extends both disjunctive programs and description logics. Furthermore, we describe algorithms for reasoning in the new formalism, and we give a precise picture of its computational complexity. We also provide a special case with polynomial data complexity. 1
On the Decidability of Query Containment under Constraints
"... Query containment under constraints is the problem of checking whether for every database satisfying a given set of constraints, the result of one query is a subset of the result of another query. Recent research points out that this is a central problem in several database applications, and we addr ..."
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Cited by 256 (56 self)
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Query containment under constraints is the problem of checking whether for every database satisfying a given set of constraints, the result of one query is a subset of the result of another query. Recent research points out that this is a central problem in several database applications, and we address it within a setting where constraints are specified in the form of special inclusion dependencies over complex expressions, built by using intersection and difference of relations, special forms of quantification, regular expressions over binary relations, and cardinality constraints. These types of constraints capture a great variety of data models, including the relational, the entityrelational, and the objectoriented model. We study the problem of checking whether q is contained in q ′ with respect to the constraints specified in a schema S, where q and q ′ are nonrecursive Datalog programs whose atoms are complex expressions. We present the following results on query containment. For the case where q does not contain regular expressions, we provide a method for deciding query containment, and analyze its computational complexity. We do the same for the case where neither S nor q, q ′ contain number restrictions. To the best of our knowledge, this yields the first decidability result on containment of conjunctive queries with regular expressions. Finally, we prove that the problem is undecidable for the case where we admit inequalities in q′.
DLLite: Tractable description logics for ontologies
 In Proc. of AAAI 2005
, 2005
"... We propose a new Description Logic, called DLLite, specifically tailored to capture basic ontology languages, while keeping low complexity of reasoning. Reasoning here means not only computing subsumption between concepts, and checking satisfiability of the whole knowledge base, but also answering ..."
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Cited by 211 (49 self)
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We propose a new Description Logic, called DLLite, specifically tailored to capture basic ontology languages, while keeping low complexity of reasoning. Reasoning here means not only computing subsumption between concepts, and checking satisfiability of the whole knowledge base, but also answering complex queries (in particular, conjunctive queries) over the set of instances maintained in secondary storage. We show that in DLLite the usual DL reasoning tasks are polynomial in the size of the TBox, and query answering is polynomial in the size of the ABox (i.e., in data complexity). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first result of polynomial data complexity for query answering over DL knowledge bases. A notable feature of our logic is to allow for a separation between TBox and ABox reasoning during query evaluation: the part of the process requiring TBox reasoning is independent of the ABox, and the part of the process requiring access to the ABox can be carried out by an SQL engine, thus taking advantage of the query optimization strategies provided by current DBMSs.
A general Datalogbased framework for tractable query answering over ontologies
 In Proc. PODS2009. ACM
, 2009
"... Ontologies play a key role in the Semantic Web [4], data modeling, and information integration [16]. Recent trends in ontological reasoning have shifted from decidability issues to tractability ones, as e.g. reflected by the work on the DLLite family of tractable description logics (DLs) [11, 19]. ..."
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Cited by 135 (24 self)
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Ontologies play a key role in the Semantic Web [4], data modeling, and information integration [16]. Recent trends in ontological reasoning have shifted from decidability issues to tractability ones, as e.g. reflected by the work on the DLLite family of tractable description logics (DLs) [11, 19]. An important result of these works is that the main
Hypertableau Reasoning for Description Logics
 JOURNAL OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE RESEARCH
, 2007
"... We present a novel reasoning calculus for the description logic SHOIQ + —a knowledge representation formalism with applications in areas such as the Semantic Web. Unnecessary nondeterminism and the construction of large models are two primary sources of inefficiency in the tableaubased reasoning ca ..."
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Cited by 132 (26 self)
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We present a novel reasoning calculus for the description logic SHOIQ + —a knowledge representation formalism with applications in areas such as the Semantic Web. Unnecessary nondeterminism and the construction of large models are two primary sources of inefficiency in the tableaubased reasoning calculi used in stateoftheart reasoners. In order to reduce nondeterminism, we base our calculus on hypertableau and hyperresolution calculi, which we extend with a blocking condition to ensure termination. In order to reduce the size of the constructed models, we introduce anywhere pairwise blocking. We also present an improved nominal introduction rule that ensures termination in the presence of nominals, inverse roles, and number restrictions—a combination of DL constructs that has proven notoriously difficult to handle. Our implementation shows significant performance improvements over stateoftheart reasoners on several wellknown ontologies.
DL+log: Tight integration of description logics and disjunctive datalog
 In KR2006
, 2006
"... The integration of Description Logics and Datalog rules presents many semantic and computational problems. In particular, reasoning in a system fully integrating Description Logics knowledge bases (DLKBs) and Datalog programs is undecidable. Many proposals have overcomed this problem through a “saf ..."
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Cited by 114 (6 self)
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The integration of Description Logics and Datalog rules presents many semantic and computational problems. In particular, reasoning in a system fully integrating Description Logics knowledge bases (DLKBs) and Datalog programs is undecidable. Many proposals have overcomed this problem through a “safeness ” condition that limits the interaction between the DLKB and the Datalog rules. Such a safe integration of Description Logics and Datalog provides for systems with decidable reasoning, at the price of a strong limitation in terms of expressive power. In this paper we define DL+log, a general framework for the integration of Description Logics and disjunctive Datalog. From the knowledge representation viewpoint, DL+log extends previous proposals, since it allows for a tighter form of integration between DLKBs and Datalog rules which overcomes the main representational limits of the approaches based on the safeness condition. From the reasoning viewpoint, we present algorithms for reasoning in DL+log, and prove decidability and complexity of reasoning in DL+log for several Description Logics. To the best of our knowledge, DL+log constitutes the most powerful decidable combination of Description Logics and disjunctive Datalog rules proposed so far.