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377
A static power model for architects
 In Proceedings of the 33rd International Symposium on Microarchitecture (MICRO33
, 2000
"... Static power dissipation due to transistor leakage constitutes an increasing fraction of the total power in modern semiconductor technologies. Current technology trends indicate that the contribution will increase rapidly, reaching one half of total power dissipation within three process generations ..."
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Cited by 177 (2 self)
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Static power dissipation due to transistor leakage constitutes an increasing fraction of the total power in modern semiconductor technologies. Current technology trends indicate that the contribution will increase rapidly, reaching one half of total power dissipation within three process generations. Developing power efficient products will require consideration of static power in the earliest phases of design, including architecture and microarchitecture definition. We propose a simple equation for estimating static power consumption at the architectural level: Pstatic = VCC ⋅ N ⋅ kdesign ⋅ Îleak, where VCC is the supply voltage, N is the number of transistors, kdesign is a design dependent parameter, and Îleak is a technology dependent parameter. This model enables highlevel reasoning about the likely static power demands of alternative microarchitectures. Reasonably accurate values for the factors within the equation may be obtained directly from the highlevel designs or by straightforward scaling arguments. The factors within the equation also suggest opportunities for static power optimization, including reducing the total number of devices, partitioning the design to allow for lower supply voltages or slower, less leaky transistors, turning off unused devices, favoring certain design styles, and favoring high bandwidth over low latency. Speculation is also examined as a means to employ slower transistors without a significant performance penalty. 1.
Supply and threshold Voltage scaling for Lowpower CMOS,”
 IEEE Journal of solidstate circuits,
, 1999
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Combined Dynamic Voltage Scaling and Adaptive Body Biasing for Lower Power Microprocessors under Dynamic Workloads
, 2002
"... Dynamic voltage scaling (DVS) reduces the power consumption of processors when peak performance is unnecessary. However, the achievable power savings by DVS alone is becoming limited as leakage power increases. In this paper, we show how the simultaneous use of adaptive body biasing (ABB) and DVS ca ..."
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Cited by 134 (2 self)
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Dynamic voltage scaling (DVS) reduces the power consumption of processors when peak performance is unnecessary. However, the achievable power savings by DVS alone is becoming limited as leakage power increases. In this paper, we show how the simultaneous use of adaptive body biasing (ABB) and DVS can be used to reduce power in highperformance processors. Analytical models of the leakage current, dynamic power, and frequency as functions of supply voltage and body bias are derived and verified with SPICE simulation. We then show how to determine the correct tradeoff between supply voltage and body bias for a given clock frequency and duration of operation. The usefulness· of our approach is evaluated on real workloads obtained using realtime monitoring of processor utilization for four applications. The results demonstrate that application of simultaneous DVS and ABB results in an average energy reduction of 48% over DVS alone.
IntraTask Voltage Scheduling for LowEnergy Hard RealTime Applications",
 IEEE Design & Test of Computers,
, 2001
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DualThreshold Voltage Techniques for LowPower Digital Circuits”.
 IEEE Journal of Solid State Circuits,
, 2000
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Figures of Merit to Characterize the Importance of OnChip Inductance
 Proceedings of the IEEE/ACM Design Automation Conference
, 1998
"... A closed form solution for the output signal of a CMOS inverter driving an RLC transmission line is presented. This solution is based on the alpha power law for deep submicrometer technologies. Two figures of merit are presented that are useful for determining if a section of interconnect should be ..."
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Cited by 97 (27 self)
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A closed form solution for the output signal of a CMOS inverter driving an RLC transmission line is presented. This solution is based on the alpha power law for deep submicrometer technologies. Two figures of merit are presented that are useful for determining if a section of interconnect should be modeled as either an RLC or an RC impedance. The damping factor of a lumped RLC circuit is shown to be a useful figure of merit. The second useful figure of merit considered in this paper is the ratio of the rise time of the input signal at the driver of an interconnect line to the time of flight of the signals across the line. AS/X circuit simulations of an RLC transmission line and a five section RC P circuit based on a 0.25 m IBM CMOS technology are used to quantify and determine the relative accuracy of an RC model. One primary result of this study is evidence demonstrating that a range for the length of the interconnect exists for which inductance effects are prominent. Furthermore, it ...
Theoretical and practical limits of dynamic voltage scaling
 In DAC ’04: Proceedings of the 41st annual conference on Design automation
, 2004
"... Dynamic voltage scaling (DVS) is a popular approach for energy reduction of integrated circuits. Current processors that use DVS typically have an operating voltage range from full to half of the maximum Vdd. However, it is possible to construct designs that operate over a much larger voltage range: ..."
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Cited by 86 (20 self)
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Dynamic voltage scaling (DVS) is a popular approach for energy reduction of integrated circuits. Current processors that use DVS typically have an operating voltage range from full to half of the maximum Vdd. However, it is possible to construct designs that operate over a much larger voltage range: from full Vdd to subthreshold voltages. This possibility raises the question of whether a larger voltage range improves the energy efficiency of DVS. First, from a theoretical point of view, we show that for subthreshold supply voltages leakage energy becomes dominant, making “just in time completion” energy inefficient. We derive an analytical model for the minimum energy optimal voltage and study its trends with technology scaling. Second, we use the proposed model to study the workload activity of an actual processor and analyze the energy efficiency as a function of the lower limit of voltage scaling. Based on this study, we show that extending the voltage range below 1/2 Vdd will improve the energy efficiency for most processor designs, while extending this range to subthreshold operation is beneficial only for very specific applications. Finally, we show that operation deep in the subthreshold voltage range is never energyefficient.
A Dynamic Voltage Scaling Algorithm for DynamicPriority Hard RealTime Systems Using Slack Time Analysis
 In Proceedings of Design Automation and Test in Europe
, 2002
"... Dynamic voltage scaling (DVS), which adjusts the clock speed and supply voltage dynamically, is an effective technique in reducing the energy consumption of embedded realtime systems. The energy efficiency of a DVS algorithm largely depends on the performance of the slack estimation method used in i ..."
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Cited by 83 (12 self)
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Dynamic voltage scaling (DVS), which adjusts the clock speed and supply voltage dynamically, is an effective technique in reducing the energy consumption of embedded realtime systems. The energy efficiency of a DVS algorithm largely depends on the performance of the slack estimation method used in it. In this paper, we propose a novel DVS algorithm for periodic hard realtime tasks based on an improved slack estimation algorithm. Unlike the existing techniques, the proposed method takes full advantage of the periodic characteristics of the realtime tasks under prioritydriven scheduling such as EDF. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm reduces the energy consumption by 20#40% over the existing DVS algorithm. The experiment results also show that our algorithm based on the improved slack estimation method gives comparable energy savings to the DVS algorithm based on the theoretically optimal (but impractical) slack estimation method.
VariationAware Application Scheduling and Power Management for Chip Multiprocessors
, 2008
"... Withindie process variation causes individual cores in a Chip Multiprocessor (CMP) to differ substantially in both static power consumed and maximum frequency supported. In this environment, ignoring variation effects when scheduling applications or when managing power with Dynamic Voltage and Freq ..."
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Cited by 72 (6 self)
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Withindie process variation causes individual cores in a Chip Multiprocessor (CMP) to differ substantially in both static power consumed and maximum frequency supported. In this environment, ignoring variation effects when scheduling applications or when managing power with Dynamic Voltage and Frequency Scaling (DVFS) is suboptimal. This paper proposes variationaware algorithms for application scheduling and power management. One such power management algorithm, called LinOpt, uses linear programming to find the best voltage and frequency levels for each of the cores in the CMP — maximizing throughput at a given power budget. In a 20core CMP, the combination of variationaware application scheduling and LinOpt increases the average throughput by 12–17 % and reduces the average ED 2 by 30–38 % — all relative to using variationaware scheduling together with a simple extension to Intel’s Foxton power management algorithm.
3D Topologies for NetworksonChip
 in Proc. IEEE Int. SOC Conf., 2006
, 2006
"... Abstract—Several interesting topologies emerge by incorporating the third dimension in networksonchip (NoC). The speed and power consumption of 3D NoC are compared to that of 2D NoC. Physical constraints, such as the maximum number of planes that can be vertically stacked and the asymmetry betwe ..."
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Cited by 65 (2 self)
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Abstract—Several interesting topologies emerge by incorporating the third dimension in networksonchip (NoC). The speed and power consumption of 3D NoC are compared to that of 2D NoC. Physical constraints, such as the maximum number of planes that can be vertically stacked and the asymmetry between the horizontal and vertical communication channels of the network, are included in speed and power consumption models of these novel 3D structures. An analytic model for the zeroload latency of each network that considers the effects of the topology on the performance of a 3D NoC is developed. Tradeoffs between the number of nodes utilized in the third dimension, which reduces the average number of hops traversed by a packet, and the number of physical planes used to integrate the functional blocks of the network, which decreases the length of the communication channel, is evaluated for both the latency and power consumption of a network. A performance improvement of 40 % and 36 % and a decrease of 62 % and 58 % in power consumption is demonstrated for 3D NoC as compared to a traditional 2D NoC topology for a network size of aIPVand aPSTnodes, respectively. Index Terms—3D circuits, 3D integrated circuits (ICs), 3D integration, networksonchip (NoC), topologies.