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On Financial Contracting: An Analysis of Bond Covenants
 Journal of Financial Economics
, 1979
"... Wtth rtsky debt outstandmg, stockholder acttons armed at maxrmtzmg the value of their equtty clatm can result m a reduction in the value of both the firm and its outstandmg bonds. We examme ways m which debt contracts are written to control the confltct between bondholders and stockholders. We find ..."
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Cited by 420 (3 self)
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that extenstve dtrect restrictions on production/investment pohcy would be expenstve to employ and are not observed. However, dividend and tinancmg pohcy restricttons are wrttten to give stockholders incentives to follow a firmvaluemaxtmizmg production/mvestment pohcy. Takmg mto account how contracts control
Learning to Order Things
 Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research
, 1998
"... There are many applications in which it is desirable to order rather than classify instances. Here we consider the problem of learning how to order, given feedback in the form of preference judgments, i.e., statements to the effect that one instance should be ranked ahead of another. We outline a ..."
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Cited by 409 (12 self)
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There are many applications in which it is desirable to order rather than classify instances. Here we consider the problem of learning how to order, given feedback in the form of preference judgments, i.e., statements to the effect that one instance should be ranked ahead of another. We outline
A Restricted Form of HigherOrder Rewriting Applied to an HDL Semantics
 Rewriting Techniques and Applications: 6th International Conference, volume 914 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science
, 1995
"... . An algorithm for a restricted form of higherorder matching is described. The intended usage is for rewrite rules that use functionvalued variables in place of some unknown term structure. The matching algorithm instantiates these variables with suitable abstractions when given the term to be ..."
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Cited by 1 (0 self)
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. An algorithm for a restricted form of higherorder matching is described. The intended usage is for rewrite rules that use functionvalued variables in place of some unknown term structure. The matching algorithm instantiates these variables with suitable abstractions when given the term
Equational Constraint Solving via a restricted form of universal quantification
"... Abstract. In this paper, we present a syntactic method for solving firstorder equational constraints over term algebras. The presented method exploits a novel notion of quasisolved form that we call answer. By allowing a restricted form of universal quantification, answers provide a more compact wa ..."
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Abstract. In this paper, we present a syntactic method for solving firstorder equational constraints over term algebras. The presented method exploits a novel notion of quasisolved form that we call answer. By allowing a restricted form of universal quantification, answers provide a more compact
On the Arithmetical Content of Restricted Forms of Comprehension, Choice and General Uniform Boundedness
 PURE AND APPLIED LOGIC
, 1997
"... In this paper the numerical strength of fragments of arithmetical comprehension, choice and general uniform boundedness is studied systematically. These principles are investigated relative to base systems T n in all finite types which are suited to formalize substantial parts of analysis but ..."
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Cited by 9 (4 self)
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In this paper the numerical strength of fragments of arithmetical comprehension, choice and general uniform boundedness is studied systematically. These principles are investigated relative to base systems T n in all finite types which are suited to formalize substantial parts of analysis but nevertheless have provably recursive function(al)s of low growth. We reduce the use of instances of these principles in T n proofs of a large class of formulas to the use of instances of certain arithmetical principles thereby determining faithfully the arithmetical content of the former. This is achieved using the method of elimination of Skolem functions for monotone formulas which was introduced by the author in a previous paper. As
Ownership Types for Flexible Alias Protection
 In ObjectOriented Programming, Systems, Languages, and Applications (OOPSLA
, 1998
"... Objectoriented programming languages allow interobject aliasing. Although necessary to construct linked data structures and networks of interacting objects, aliasing is problematic in that an aggregate object's state can change via an alias to one of its components, without the aggregate bein ..."
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Cited by 365 (41 self)
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being aware of any aliasing. Ownership types form a static type system that indicates object ownership. This provides a flexible mechanism to limit the visibility of object references and restrict access paths to objects, thus controlling a system's dynamic topology. The type system is shown
Chapter 14 Taxonomy Formation: ��A restricted form of Knowledge Discovery in Database
"... Classification of objects involves formation of concepts/classes of objects or instances in order to construct one or more taxonomies that include those classes. Onelevel taxonomy elements can be constructed by relying only on approximate equivalence that is guided by a partition utility function. ..."
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. The onelevel taxonomies are the basic building block of Multilevel taxonomy. Our process for forming taxonomy tree is a type of unsupervised learning. Our method is restricted a binary trees of classes in unsupervised fashion, i.e., no a priori model of the data is assumed except that the values
Subtyping recursive types
 ACM TRANSACTIONS ON PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES AND SYSTEMS
, 1993
"... We investigate the interactions of subtyping and recursive types, in a simply typed λcalculus. The two fundamental questions here are whether two (recursive) types are in the subtype relation, and whether a term has a type. To address the first question, we relate various definitions of type equiva ..."
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Cited by 320 (9 self)
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equivalence and subtyping that are induced by a model, an ordering on infinite trees, an algorithm, and a set of type rules. We show soundness and completeness between the rules, the algorithm, and the tree semantics. We also prove soundness and a restricted form of completeness for the model. To address
The even more irresistible SROIQ
 In KR
, 2006
"... We describe an extension of the description logic underlying OWLDL, SHOIN, with a number of expressive means that we believe will make it more useful in practise. Roughly speaking, we extend SHOIN with all expressive means that were suggested to us by ontology developers as useful additions to OWL ..."
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Cited by 342 (50 self)
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DL, and which, additionally, do not affect its decidability. We consider complex role inclusion axioms of the form R ◦ S ˙ ⊑ R or S ◦ R ˙ ⊑ R to express propagation of one property along another one, which have proven useful in medical terminologies. Furthermore, we extend SHOIN with reflexive, symmetric
An assumptionbased truthmaintenance system
 Artificial Intelligence
, 1986
"... In this paper we (1) define the concept of a Clause Managetnent System (CMS) — a generaizatiou of de Kleer’s ATMS, (2) motivate such systems in terms of efficiency of search and abductive reasoning, and (3) characterize the computation affected by a CMS in terms of the concept of prime implicants. ..."
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Cited by 334 (11 self)
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it does, occasionally transmits a propositional clause2 to the CMS. The Reasoner is also permitted to query the CMS any time it feels so inclined. A query takes the form of a propositional clause C. The CMS is expected to respond with every shortest clause S for which the clause S V C is a log
Results 11  20
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