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899
Algebraic laws for nondeterminism and concurrency
 Journal of the ACM
, 1985
"... Abstract. Since a nondeterministic and concurrent program may, in general, communicate repeatedly with its environment, its meaning cannot be presented naturally as an input/output function (as is often done in the denotational approach to semantics). In this paper, an alternative is put forth. Firs ..."
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Cited by 608 (13 self)
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Abstract. Since a nondeterministic and concurrent program may, in general, communicate repeatedly with its environment, its meaning cannot be presented naturally as an input/output function (as is often done in the denotational approach to semantics). In this paper, an alternative is put forth
Policy gradient methods for reinforcement learning with function approximation.
 In NIPS,
, 1999
"... Abstract Function approximation is essential to reinforcement learning, but the standard approach of approximating a value function and determining a policy from it has so far proven theoretically intractable. In this paper we explore an alternative approach in which the policy is explicitly repres ..."
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Cited by 439 (20 self)
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output is action selection probabilities, and whose weights are the policy parameters. Let θ denote the vector of policy parameters and ρ the performance of the corresponding policy (e.g., the average reward per step). Then, in the policy gradient approach, the policy parameters are updated approximately
On nominal Split Topicalization in nonStandard Viennese German
, 2006
"... This work investigates the syntactic, semantic, and pragmatic properties of nominal Split Topicalization (ST) constructions in Standard and nonStandard German. The topic phrase denotes a property, and the MF phrase either modifies this property or picks out a specific entity. Semantically, the topi ..."
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, the topic phrase will be analysed as a propertydenoting expression which restricts the denotation of the verbal predicate, while the MF phrase is composed either via specify or restrict (cf. Chung and Ladusaw, 2003). Syntactically, the base position of the topic phrase is the (incorporating) verb
Focus Asymmetries in Bura*
"... This article presents the central aspects of the focus system of Bura (Chadic), which exhibits a number of asymmetries: Grammatical focus marking is obligatory only with focused subjects, where focus is marked by the particle án following the subject. Focused subjects remain in situ and the compleme ..."
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and the complement of án is a regular VP. With nonsubject foci, án appears in a cleftstructure between the fronted focus constituent and a relative clause. We present a semantically unified analysis of focus marking in Bura that treats the particle as a focusmarking copula in T that takes a propertydenoting
Types of Predicates and the Representation of Existential Readings
 Proceedings of SALT VII, CLC
, 1997
"... The main theoretical proposal to be made in this paper is that existential force may have two sources. It may be contributed by either indefinite arguments or by certain predicates. I will argue against the current view that subsumes BNPs under the analysis of indefinites and assume instead that BNP ..."
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Cited by 13 (2 self)
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that BNPs are propertydenoting expressions (see also McNally (1995)), which as such cannot contribute existential force. The obvious problems regarding semantic composition raised by this hypothesis can be solved by defining a class of predicates that are able to apply to propertydenoting arguments. I
Regular expression types for XML
"... We propose regular expression types as a foundation for statically typed XML processing languages. Regular expression types, like most schema languages for XML, introduce regular expression notations such as repetition (*), alternation (), etc., to describe XML documents. The novelty of our type sy ..."
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Cited by 204 (21 self)
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advantage of this algorithm is that it can exploit the property that type expressions being compared often share portions of their representations. Our algorithm is a variant of Aiken and Murphy’s setinclusion constraint solver, to which are added several new implementation techniques, correctness proofs
Combinators for bidirectional tree transformations: A linguistic approach to the view update problem
 In ACM SIGPLAN–SIGACT Symposium on Principles of Programming Languages (POPL
, 2005
"... We propose a novel approach to the view update problem for treestructured data: a domainspecific programming language in which all expressions denote bidirectional transformations on trees. In one direction, these transformations—dubbed lenses—map a “concrete ” tree into a simplified “abstract vie ..."
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Cited by 205 (17 self)
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We propose a novel approach to the view update problem for treestructured data: a domainspecific programming language in which all expressions denote bidirectional transformations on trees. In one direction, these transformations—dubbed lenses—map a “concrete ” tree into a simplified “abstract
Using Quasi Ordered Sets to Model Program Properties Denotationally
 Informatik '97: Informatik als Innovationsmotor, Informatik aktuell
, 1997
"... . Properties of programs are often not expressible with the standard denotational semantics approach. Annotated semantic domains and corresponding semantic functions capacitate us to express the properties, but the resulting structures are no longer partial ordered sets. Instead we obtain quasi orde ..."
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Cited by 1 (1 self)
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. Properties of programs are often not expressible with the standard denotational semantics approach. Annotated semantic domains and corresponding semantic functions capacitate us to express the properties, but the resulting structures are no longer partial ordered sets. Instead we obtain quasi
Coil sensitivity encoding for fast MRI. In:
 Proceedings of the ISMRM 6th Annual Meeting,
, 1998
"... New theoretical and practical concepts are presented for considerably enhancing the performance of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) by means of arrays of multiple receiver coils. Sensitivity encoding (SENSE) is based on the fact that receiver sensitivity generally has an encoding effect complementa ..."
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Cited by 193 (3 self)
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denotes the factor by which the number of samples is reduced with respect to full Fourier encoding: The rightmost squareroot expression in Eq. [21] strongly depends on coil geometry and is thus called the local geometry factor g, which is always at least equal to one: Note that by virtue of condition [15
Simple Relational Correctness Proofs for Static Analyses and Program Transformations
, 2004
"... We show how some classical static analyses for imperative programs, and the optimizing transformations which they enable, may be expressed and proved correct using elementary logical and denotational techniques. The key ingredients are an interpretation of program properties as relations, rather tha ..."
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Cited by 107 (9 self)
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We show how some classical static analyses for imperative programs, and the optimizing transformations which they enable, may be expressed and proved correct using elementary logical and denotational techniques. The key ingredients are an interpretation of program properties as relations, rather
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