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Relations and Functions Z Alloy Intuitive meaning
"... p ∧ q p and q, p & & q conjunction p ∨ q p or q, p   q disjunction p ⇒ q p implies q, p => q implication ¬p not p, ! p negation ∀a: A  p0 • p1 all a:A  p0 implies p1 universal quantification ∃a: A  p0 • p1 some a:A  p0 and p1 existential quantification none the empty set #A # A card ..."
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p ∧ q p and q, p & & q conjunction p ∨ q p or q, p   q disjunction p ⇒ q p implies q, p => q implication ¬p not p, ! p negation ∀a: A  p0 • p1 all a:A  p0 implies p1 universal quantification ∃a: A  p0 • p1 some a:A  p0 and p1 existential quantification none the empty set #A # A cardinality a ∈ A a: one A (see the note below) membership ∗ a ⊆ A a in A subset or equal (a ⊆ A) ∧ (#a ≥ 1) a: some A nonempty subset or equal a ⊆ A ∧ #a ≤ 1 a: lone A option = = equality [Name] sig Name {} given set
Cluster analysis and display of genomewide expression patterns’,
 Proc. Natl. Acad.
, 1998
"... ABSTRACT A system of cluster analysis for genomewide expression data from DNA microarray hybridization is described that uses standard statistical algorithms to arrange genes according to similarity in pattern of gene expression. The output is displayed graphically, conveying the clustering and th ..."
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Cited by 2891 (44 self)
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and the underlying expression data simultaneously in a form intuitive for biologists. We have found in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae that clustering gene expression data groups together efficiently genes of known similar function, and we find a similar tendency in human data. Thus patterns seen
A study of translation edit rate with targeted human annotation
 In Proceedings of Association for Machine Translation in the Americas
, 2006
"... We examine a new, intuitive measure for evaluating machinetranslation output that avoids the knowledge intensiveness of more meaningbased approaches, and the laborintensiveness of human judgments. Translation Edit Rate (TER) measures the amount of editing that a human would have to perform to cha ..."
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Cited by 579 (9 self)
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We examine a new, intuitive measure for evaluating machinetranslation output that avoids the knowledge intensiveness of more meaningbased approaches, and the laborintensiveness of human judgments. Translation Edit Rate (TER) measures the amount of editing that a human would have to perform
A gentle tutorial on the EM algorithm and its application to parameter estimation for gaussian mixture and hidden markov models
, 1997
"... We describe the maximumlikelihood parameter estimation problem and how the Expectationform of the EM algorithm as it is often given in the literature. We then develop the EM parameter estimation procedure for two applications: 1) finding the parameters of a mixture of Gaussian densities, and 2) fi ..."
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Cited by 692 (4 self)
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) finding the parameters of a hidden Markov model (HMM) (i.e., the BaumWelch algorithm) for both discrete and Gaussian mixture observation models. We derive the update equations in fairly explicit detail but we do not prove any convergence properties. We try to emphasize intuition rather than mathematical
Sparse MRI: The Application of Compressed Sensing for Rapid MR Imaging
 MAGNETIC RESONANCE IN MEDICINE 58:1182–1195
, 2007
"... The sparsity which is implicit in MR images is exploited to significantly undersample kspace. Some MR images such as angiograms are already sparse in the pixel representation; other, more complicated images have a sparse representation in some transform domain–for example, in terms of spatial finit ..."
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Cited by 538 (11 self)
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finitedifferences or their wavelet coefficients. According to the recently developed mathematical theory of compressedsensing, images with a sparse representation can be recovered from randomly undersampled kspace data, provided an appropriate nonlinear recovery scheme is used. Intuitively, artifacts
A theory of social comparison processes,”
 Human Relations,
, 1954
"... In this paper we shall present a further development of a previously published theory concerning opinion influence processes in social groups (7). This further development has enabled us to extend the theory to deal with other areas, in addition to opinion formation, in which social comparison is i ..."
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Cited by 1313 (0 self)
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whether or not the theory or hypothesis fits one's intuition or one's common sense. In this meaning much of the theory which is to be presented here is not" plausible ". The theory does, however, explain a considerable amount of data and leads to testable derivations. Three experiments
On the (im)possibility of obfuscating programs
 Lecture Notes in Computer Science
, 2001
"... Informally, an obfuscator O is an (efficient, probabilistic) “compiler ” that takes as input a program (or circuit) P and produces a new program O(P) that has the same functionality as P yet is “unintelligible ” in some sense. Obfuscators, if they exist, would have a wide variety of cryptographic an ..."
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Cited by 348 (24 self)
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and complexitytheoretic applications, ranging from software protection to homomorphic encryption to complexitytheoretic analogues of Rice’s theorem. Most of these applications are based on an interpretation of the “unintelligibility ” condition in obfuscation as meaning that O(P) is a “virtual black box
INTUITION Intuition
, 2011
"... This thesis is solely the work of its author. No part of it has previously been submitted for any degree, or is currently being submitted for any other degree. To the best of my knowledge, any help received in preparing this thesis, and all sources used, have been duly acknowledged. As is the case ..."
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This thesis is solely the work of its author. No part of it has previously been submitted for any degree, or is currently being submitted for any other degree. To the best of my knowledge, any help received in preparing this thesis, and all sources used, have been duly acknowledged. As is the case almost everywhere, in Australia, half the population is effectively discriminated against. Numerous areas persist in which women occupy unequal positions in relation to men; being paid less and being underrepresented in nearly all places of power are just two examples. Biased language encourages biased thought. It is therefore the clear responsibility of those whose work is the written word to ensure that bias is not perpetuated by our hand. This thesis is prepared with this in mind. Any remaining sexist use of language is unintentional, and regretted. I acknowledge and celebrate the First Australians on whose traditional lands I have lived and worked while writing this thesis, on whose traditional lands the Australian National University is located, and whose cultures are among the oldest continuing cultures in human history.
A Test of the Efficiency of a Given Portfolio
 In Econometrica
, 1989
"... A test for the ex ante efficiency of a given portfolio of assets is analyzed. The relevant statistic has a tractable small sample distribution. Its power function is derived and used to study the sensitivity of the test to the portfolio choice and to the number of assets used to determine the ex pos ..."
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Cited by 329 (14 self)
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post meanvariance efficient frontier. Several intuitive interpretations of the test are provided, including a simple meanstandard deviation geometric explanation. A univariate test, equivalent to our multivariatebased method, is derived, and it suggests some useful diagnostic tools which may
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