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323,777
The unity and diversity of executive functions and their contributions to complex “Frontal Lobe” tasks: a latent variable analysis
 Cognit Psychol
, 2000
"... This individual differences study examined the separability of three often postulated executive functions—mental set shifting (‘‘Shifting’’), information updating and monitoring (‘‘Updating’’), and inhibition of prepotent responses (‘‘Inhibition’’)—and their roles in complex ‘‘frontal lobe’ ’ or ‘ ..."
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Cited by 626 (9 self)
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This individual differences study examined the separability of three often postulated executive functions—mental set shifting (‘‘Shifting’’), information updating and monitoring (‘‘Updating’’), and inhibition of prepotent responses (‘‘Inhibition’’)—and their roles in complex ‘‘frontal lobe
Verb Semantics And Lexical Selection
, 1994
"... ... structure. As Levin has addressed (Levin 1985), the decomposition of verbs is proposed for the purposes of accounting for systematic semanticsyntactic correspondences. This results in a series of problems for MT systems: inflexible verb sense definitions; difficulty in handling metaphor and new ..."
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Cited by 520 (4 self)
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and new usages; imprecise lexical selection and insufficient system coverage. It seems one approach is to apply probability methods and statistical models for some of these problems. However, the question reminds: has PSR exhausted the potential of the knowledgebased approach? If not, are there any
Learning to rank using gradient descent
 In ICML
, 2005
"... We investigate using gradient descent methods for learning ranking functions; we propose a simple probabilistic cost function, and we introduce RankNet, an implementation of these ideas using a neural network to model the underlying ranking function. We present test results on toy data and on data f ..."
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Cited by 510 (17 self)
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We investigate using gradient descent methods for learning ranking functions; we propose a simple probabilistic cost function, and we introduce RankNet, an implementation of these ideas using a neural network to model the underlying ranking function. We present test results on toy data and on data
Sparse Bayesian Learning and the Relevance Vector Machine
, 2001
"... This paper introduces a general Bayesian framework for obtaining sparse solutions to regression and classication tasks utilising models linear in the parameters. Although this framework is fully general, we illustrate our approach with a particular specialisation that we denote the `relevance vec ..."
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Cited by 958 (5 self)
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vector machine' (RVM), a model of identical functional form to the popular and stateoftheart `support vector machine' (SVM). We demonstrate that by exploiting a probabilistic Bayesian learning framework, we can derive accurate prediction models which typically utilise dramatically fewer
Factor Graphs and the SumProduct Algorithm
 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INFORMATION THEORY
, 1998
"... A factor graph is a bipartite graph that expresses how a "global" function of many variables factors into a product of "local" functions. Factor graphs subsume many other graphical models including Bayesian networks, Markov random fields, and Tanner graphs. Following one simple c ..."
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Cited by 1787 (72 self)
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A factor graph is a bipartite graph that expresses how a "global" function of many variables factors into a product of "local" functions. Factor graphs subsume many other graphical models including Bayesian networks, Markov random fields, and Tanner graphs. Following one simple
A Spatial Logic based on Regions and Connection
 PROCEEDINGS 3RD INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON KNOWLEDGE REPRESENTATION AND REASONING
, 1992
"... We describe an interval logic for reasoning about space. The logic simplifies an earlier theory developed by Randell and Cohn, and that of Clarke upon which the former was based. The theory supports a simpler ontology, has fewer defined functions and relations, yet does not suffer in terms of its us ..."
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Cited by 736 (32 self)
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We describe an interval logic for reasoning about space. The logic simplifies an earlier theory developed by Randell and Cohn, and that of Clarke upon which the former was based. The theory supports a simpler ontology, has fewer defined functions and relations, yet does not suffer in terms of its
The empirical case for two systems of reasoning
, 1996
"... Distinctions have been proposed between systems of reasoning for centuries. This article distills properties shared by many of these distinctions and characterizes the resulting systems in light of recent findings and theoretical developments. One system is associative because its computations ref ..."
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Cited by 631 (4 self)
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reflect similarity structure and relations of temporal contiguity. The other is “rule based” because it operates on symbolic structures that have logical content and variables and because its computations have the properties that are normally assigned to rules. The systems serve complementary functions
Bid, ask and transaction prices in a specialist market with heterogeneously informed traders
 Journal of Financial Economics
, 1985
"... The presence of traders with superior information leads to a positive bidask spread even when the specialist is riskneutral and makes zero expected profits. The resulting transaction prices convey information, and the expectation of the average spread squared times volume is bounded by a number th ..."
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Cited by 1217 (5 self)
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that is independent of insider activity. The serial correlation of transaction price differences is a function of the proportion of the spread due to adverse selection. A bidask spread implies a divergence between observed returns and realizable returns. Observed returns are approximately realizable returns plus
Toward an instance theory of automatization
 Psychological Review
, 1988
"... This article presents a theory in which automatization is construed as the acquisition of a domainspecific knowledge base, formed of separate representations, instances, of each exposure to the task. Processing is considered automatic if it relies on retrieval of stored instances, which will occur ..."
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Cited by 613 (37 self)
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only after practice in a consistent environment. Practice is important because it increases the amount retrieved and the speed of retrieval; consistency is important because it ensures that the retrieved instances will be useful. The theory accounts quantitatively for the powerfunction speed
Results 1  10
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323,777