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6,217,805
A Theory of Diagnosis from First Principles
 ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE
, 1987
"... Suppose one is given a description of a system, together with an observation of the system's behaviour which conflicts with the way the system is meant to behave. The diagnostic problem is to determine those components of the system which, when assumed to be functioning abnormally, will explain ..."
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Cited by 1119 (5 self)
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, will explain the discrepancy between the observed and correct system behaviour. We propose a general theory for this problem. The theory requires only that the system be described in a suitable logic. Moreover, there are many such suitable logics, e.g. firstorder, temporal, dynamic, etc. As a result
An Empirical Characterization of the Dynamic Effects of changes in Government Spending and Taxes on Output
 QUARTERLY JOURNAL OF ECONOMICS
, 2002
"... This paper characterizes the dynamic effects of shocks in government spending and taxes on U. S. activity in the postwar period. It does so by using a mixed structural VAR/event study approach. Identification is achieved by using institutional information about the tax and transfer systems to identi ..."
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Cited by 662 (9 self)
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to identify the automatic response of taxes and spending to activity, and, by implication, to infer fiscal shocks. The results consistently show positive government spending shocks as having a positive effect on output, and positive tax shocks as having a negative effect. One result has a distinctly
On the acceptability of arguments and its fundamental role in nonmonotonic reasoning, logic programming and nperson games
 Artificial Intelligence
, 1995
"... The purpose of this paper is to study the fundamental mechanism humans use in argumentation and its role in different major approaches to commonsense reasoning in AI and logic programming. We present three novel results: We develop a theory for argumentation in which the acceptability of arguments i ..."
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Cited by 1197 (12 self)
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is precisely defined. We show that logic programming and nonmonotonic reasoning in AI are different forms of argumentation. We show that argumentation can be viewed as a special form of logic programming with negation as failure. This result introduces a general method for generating metainterpreters
Institutions Rule: The Primacy of Institutions over Geography and Integration in Economic Development
 FREE UNIVERSITY OF BERLIN
, 2004
"... We estimate the respective contributions of institutions, geography, and trade in determining income levels around the world, using recently developed instrumental variables for institutions and trade. Our results indicate that the quality of institutions “trumps” everything else. Once institutions ..."
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Cited by 813 (28 self)
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with the “wrong” (i.e., negative) sign. We relate our results to recent literature, and where differences exist, trace their origins to choices on samples, specification, and instrumentation.
Cooperation and Punishment in Public Goods Experiments
 AMERICAN ECONOMIC REVIEW
, 2000
"... This paper provides evidence that free riders are heavily punished even if punishment is costly and does not provide any material benefits for the punisher. The more free riders negatively deviate from the group standard the more they are punished. As a consequence, the existence of an opportunity f ..."
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Cited by 511 (38 self)
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of rationality and selfishness, there should be no cooperation at all. We also show that free riding causes strong negative emotions among cooperators. The intensity of these emotions is the stronger the more the free riders deviate from the group standard. Our results provide, therefore, support
Lambertian Reflectance and Linear Subspaces
, 2000
"... We prove that the set of all reflectance functions (the mapping from surface normals to intensities) produced by Lambertian objects under distant, isotropic lighting lies close to a 9D linear subspace. This implies that, in general, the set of images of a convex Lambertian object obtained under a wi ..."
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Cited by 526 (20 self)
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the effects of Lambertian materials as the analog of a convolution. These results allow us to construct algorithms for object recognition based on linear methods as well as algorithms that use convex optimization to enforce nonnegative lighting functions. Finally, we show a simple way to enforce nonnegative
The Semantics Of Constraint Logic Programs
 JOURNAL OF LOGIC PROGRAMMING
, 1996
"... This paper presents for the first time the semantic foundations of CLP in a selfcontained and complete package. The main contributions are threefold. First, we extend the original conference paper by presenting definitions and basic semantic constructs from first principles, giving new and comp ..."
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Cited by 871 (14 self)
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This paper presents for the first time the semantic foundations of CLP in a selfcontained and complete package. The main contributions are threefold. First, we extend the original conference paper by presenting definitions and basic semantic constructs from first principles, giving new
A Critical Point For Random Graphs With A Given Degree Sequence
, 2000
"... Given a sequence of nonnegative real numbers 0 ; 1 ; : : : which sum to 1, we consider random graphs having approximately i n vertices of degree i. Essentially, we show that if P i(i \Gamma 2) i ? 0 then such graphs almost surely have a giant component, while if P i(i \Gamma 2) i ! 0 the ..."
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Cited by 503 (8 self)
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Given a sequence of nonnegative real numbers 0 ; 1 ; : : : which sum to 1, we consider random graphs having approximately i n vertices of degree i. Essentially, we show that if P i(i \Gamma 2) i ? 0 then such graphs almost surely have a giant component, while if P i(i \Gamma 2) i ! 0
An Efficient Boosting Algorithm for Combining Preferences
, 1999
"... The problem of combining preferences arises in several applications, such as combining the results of different search engines. This work describes an efficient algorithm for combining multiple preferences. We first give a formal framework for the problem. We then describe and analyze a new boosting ..."
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Cited by 727 (18 self)
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The problem of combining preferences arises in several applications, such as combining the results of different search engines. This work describes an efficient algorithm for combining multiple preferences. We first give a formal framework for the problem. We then describe and analyze a new
Loopy belief propagation for approximate inference: An empirical study. In:
 Proceedings of Uncertainty in AI,
, 1999
"... Abstract Recently, researchers have demonstrated that "loopy belief propagation" the use of Pearl's polytree algorithm in a Bayesian network with loops can perform well in the context of errorcorrecting codes. The most dramatic instance of this is the near Shannonlimit performanc ..."
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Cited by 674 (15 self)
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to the correct marginals. However, on the QMR network, the loopy be liefs oscillated and had no obvious relation ship to the correct posteriors. We present some initial investigations into the cause of these oscillations, and show that some sim ple methods of preventing them lead to the wrong results
Results 1  10
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6,217,805