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24,399
Free Riding on Gnutella
, 2000
"... this paper, Gnutella is no exception to this finding, and an experimental study of its user patterns shows indeed that free riding is the norm rather than the exception. If distributed systems such as Gnutella rely on voluntary cooperation, rampant free riding may eventually render them useless, as ..."
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Cited by 614 (2 self)
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this paper, Gnutella is no exception to this finding, and an experimental study of its user patterns shows indeed that free riding is the norm rather than the exception. If distributed systems such as Gnutella rely on voluntary cooperation, rampant free riding may eventually render them useless
Constructing Free Energy Approximations and Generalized Belief Propagation Algorithms
 IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
, 2005
"... Important inference problems in statistical physics, computer vision, errorcorrecting coding theory, and artificial intelligence can all be reformulated as the computation of marginal probabilities on factor graphs. The belief propagation (BP) algorithm is an efficient way to solve these problems t ..."
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Cited by 585 (13 self)
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that is exact when the factor graph is a tree, but only approximate when the factor graph has cycles. We show that BP fixed points correspond to the stationary points of the Bethe approximation of the free energy for a factor graph. We explain how to obtain regionbased free energy approximations that improve
Learnability and the VapnikChervonenkis dimension
, 1989
"... Valiant’s learnability model is extended to learning classes of concepts defined by regions in Euclidean space E”. The methods in this paper lead to a unified treatment of some of Valiant’s results, along with previous results on distributionfree convergence of certain pattern recognition algorith ..."
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Cited by 727 (22 self)
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Valiant’s learnability model is extended to learning classes of concepts defined by regions in Euclidean space E”. The methods in this paper lead to a unified treatment of some of Valiant’s results, along with previous results on distributionfree convergence of certain pattern recognition
Numerical solution of initial boundary value problems involving Maxwell’s equations in isotropic media
 IEEE Trans. Antennas and Propagation
, 1966
"... The characteristics of the waves guided along a plane [I] P. S. Epstein, “On the possibility of electromagnetic surface waves, ” Proc. Nat’l dcad. Sciences, vol. 40, pp. 11581165, Deinterface which separates a semiinfinite region of free cember 1954. space from that of a magnetoionic medium are in ..."
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Cited by 1048 (0 self)
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The characteristics of the waves guided along a plane [I] P. S. Epstein, “On the possibility of electromagnetic surface waves, ” Proc. Nat’l dcad. Sciences, vol. 40, pp. 11581165, Deinterface which separates a semiinfinite region of free cember 1954. space from that of a magnetoionic medium
The performance of mutual funds in the period 19451964
 JOURNAL OF FINANCE
, 1968
"... In this paper I derive a riskadjusted measure of portfolio performance (now known as "Jensen's Alpha") that estimates how much a manager's forecasting ability contributes to the fund's returns. The measure is based on the theory of the pricing of capital assets by Sharpe (1 ..."
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Cited by 615 (1 self)
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, and other expenses except brokerage commissions were obtained free). Thus on average the funds apparently were not quite successful enough in their trading activities to recoup even their brokerage expenses.
Recognitionbycomponents: A theory of human image understanding
 Psychological Review
, 1987
"... The perceptual recognition of objects is conceptualized to be a process in which the image of the input is segmented at regions of deep concavity into an arrangement of simple geometric components, such as blocks, cylinders, wedges, and cones. The fundamental assumption of the proposed theory, recog ..."
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Cited by 1272 (23 self)
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The perceptual recognition of objects is conceptualized to be a process in which the image of the input is segmented at regions of deep concavity into an arrangement of simple geometric components, such as blocks, cylinders, wedges, and cones. The fundamental assumption of the proposed theory
An Algorithm for Planning CollisionFree Paths Among Polyhedral Obstacles
, 1979
"... This paper describes a collision avoidance algorithm for planning a safe path for a polyhedral object moving among known polyhedral objects. The algorithm transforms the obstacles so that they represent the locus of forbidden positions for an arbitrary reference point on the moving object. A traject ..."
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Cited by 404 (3 self)
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trajectory of this reference point which avoids all forbidden regions is free of collisions. Trajectories are found by searching a network which indicates, for each vertex in the transformed obstacles, which other vertices can be reached safely.
Process algebra for synchronous communication
 Inform. and Control
, 1984
"... Within the context of an algebraic theory of processes, an equational specification of process cooperation is provided. Four cases are considered: free merge or interleaving, merging with communication, merging with mutual exclusion of tight regions, and synchronous process cooperation. The rewrite ..."
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Cited by 426 (68 self)
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Within the context of an algebraic theory of processes, an equational specification of process cooperation is provided. Four cases are considered: free merge or interleaving, merging with communication, merging with mutual exclusion of tight regions, and synchronous process cooperation. The rewrite
The Determinants of Credit Spread Changes.
 Journal of Finance
, 2001
"... ABSTRACT Using dealer's quotes and transactions prices on straight industrial bonds, we investigate the determinants of credit spread changes. Variables that should in theory determine credit spread changes have rather limited explanatory power. Further, the residuals from this regression are ..."
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Cited by 422 (2 self)
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, contingentclaims pricing is most readily accomplished by pricing derivatives under the socalled riskneutral measure, where all traded securities have an expected return equal to the riskfree rate (see Cox and Ross (1976) and Harrison and Kreps (1979)). In particular, the value of the debt claim
RegionBased Memory Management
, 1997
"... This paper describes a memory management discipline for programs that perform dynamic memory allocation and deallocation. At runtime, all values are put into regions. The store consists of a stack of regions. All points of region allocation and deallocation are inferred automatically, using a type ..."
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Cited by 323 (8 self)
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and effect based program analysis. The scheme does not assume the presence of a garbage collector. The scheme was first presented by Tofte and Talpin (1994); subsequently, it has been tested in The ML Kit with Regions, a regionbased, garbagecollection free implementation of the Standard ML Core language
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