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Exact Sampling with Coupled Markov Chains and Applications to Statistical Mechanics
, 1996
"... For many applications it is useful to sample from a finite set of objects in accordance with some particular distribution. One approach is to run an ergodic (i.e., irreducible aperiodic) Markov chain whose stationary distribution is the desired distribution on this set; after the Markov chain has ..."
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Cited by 548 (13 self)
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, and that outputs samples in exact accordance with the desired distribution. The method uses couplings, which have also played a role in other sampling schemes; however, rather than running the coupled chains from the present into the future, one runs from a distant point in the past up until the present, where
KodairaSpencer theory of gravity and exact results for quantum string amplitudes
 Commun. Math. Phys
, 1994
"... We develop techniques to compute higher loop string amplitudes for twisted N = 2 theories with ĉ = 3 (i.e. the critical case). An important ingredient is the discovery of an anomaly at every genus in decoupling of BRST trivial states, captured to all orders by a master anomaly equation. In a particu ..."
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Cited by 545 (60 self)
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We develop techniques to compute higher loop string amplitudes for twisted N = 2 theories with ĉ = 3 (i.e. the critical case). An important ingredient is the discovery of an anomaly at every genus in decoupling of BRST trivial states, captured to all orders by a master anomaly equation. In a particular realization of the N = 2 theories, the resulting string field theory is equivalent to a topological theory in six dimensions, the Kodaira– Spencer theory, which may be viewed as the closed string analog of the Chern–Simon theory. Using the mirror map this leads to computation of the ‘number ’ of holomorphic curves of higher genus curves in Calabi–Yau manifolds. It is shown that topological amplitudes can also be reinterpreted as computing corrections to superpotential terms appearing in the effective 4d theory resulting from compactification of standard 10d superstrings on the corresponding N = 2 theory. Relations with c = 1 strings are also pointed out.
The fundamental properties of natural numbers
 Journal of Formalized Mathematics
, 1989
"... Summary. Some fundamental properties of addition, multiplication, order relations, exact division, the remainder, divisibility, the least common multiple, the greatest common divisor are presented. A proof of Euclid algorithm is also given. MML Identifier:NAT_1. WWW:http://mizar.org/JFM/Vol1/nat_1.h ..."
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Cited by 682 (76 self)
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Summary. Some fundamental properties of addition, multiplication, order relations, exact division, the remainder, divisibility, the least common multiple, the greatest common divisor are presented. A proof of Euclid algorithm is also given. MML Identifier:NAT_1. WWW:http://mizar.org/JFM/Vol1/nat_1
Basic objects in natural categories
 COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY
, 1976
"... Categorizations which humans make of the concrete world are not arbitrary but highly determined. In taxonomies of concrete objects, there is one level of abstraction at which the most basic category cuts are made. Basic categories are those which carry the most information, possess the highest categ ..."
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Cited by 856 (1 self)
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Categorizations which humans make of the concrete world are not arbitrary but highly determined. In taxonomies of concrete objects, there is one level of abstraction at which the most basic category cuts are made. Basic categories are those which carry the most information, possess the highest category cue validity, and are, thus, the most differentiated from one another. The four experiments of Part I define basic objects by demonstrating that in taxonomies of common concrete nouns in English based on class inclusion, basic objects are the most inclusive categories whose members: (a) possess significant numbers of attributes in common, (b) have motor programs which are similar to one another, (c) have similar shapes, and (d) can be identified from averaged shapes of members of the class. The eight experiments of Part II explore implications of the structure of categories. Basic objects are shown to be the most inclusive categories for which a concrete image of the category as a whole can be formed, to be the first categorizations made during perception of the environment, to be the earliest categories sorted and earliest named by children, and to be the categories
The lexical nature of syntactic ambiguity resolution
 Psychological Review
, 1994
"... Ambiguity resolution is a central problem in language comprehension. Lexical and syntactic ambiguities are standardly assumed to involve different types of knowledge representations and be resolved by different mechanisms. An alternative account is provided in which both types of ambiguity derive fr ..."
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Cited by 556 (23 self)
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Ambiguity resolution is a central problem in language comprehension. Lexical and syntactic ambiguities are standardly assumed to involve different types of knowledge representations and be resolved by different mechanisms. An alternative account is provided in which both types of ambiguity derive from aspects of lexical representation and are resolved by the same processing mechanisms. Reinterpreting syntactic ambiguity resolution as a form of lexical ambiguity resolution obviates the need for special parsing principles to account for syntactic interpretation preferences, reconciles a number of apparently conflicting results concerning the roles of lexical and contextual information in sentence processing, explains differences among ambiguities in terms of ease of resolution, and provides a more unified account of language comprehension than was previously available. One of the principal goals for a theory of language compre third section we consider processing issues: how information is hension is to explain how the reader or listener copes with a processed within the mental lexicon and how contextual inforpervasive ambiguity problem. Languages are structured at mation can influence processing. The central processing mechmultiple levels simultaneously, including lexical, phonological, anism we invoke is the constraint satisfaction process that has morphological, syntactic, and text or discourse levels. At any been realized in interactiveactivation models (e.g., Elman &
A Maximum Entropy approach to Natural Language Processing
 COMPUTATIONAL LINGUISTICS
, 1996
"... The concept of maximum entropy can be traced back along multiple threads to Biblical times. Only recently, however, have computers become powerful enough to permit the widescale application of this concept to real world problems in statistical estimation and pattern recognition. In this paper we des ..."
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Cited by 1341 (5 self)
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describe a method for statistical modeling based on maximum entropy. We present a maximumlikelihood approach for automatically constructing maximum entropy models and describe how to implement this approach efficiently, using as examples several problems in natural language processing.
The theory of planned behavior
 Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes
, 1991
"... Research dealing with various aspects of * the theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 1985, 1987) is reviewed, and some unresolved issues are discussed. In broad terms, the theory is found to be well supported by empirical evidence. Intentions to perform behaviors of different kinds can be predicted wit ..."
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Cited by 2670 (9 self)
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to be related to appropriate sets of salient behavioral, normative, and control beliefs about the behavior, but the exact nature of these relations is still uncertain. Expectancy — value formulations are found to be only partly successful in dealing with these relations. Optimal rescaling of expectancy
Evolution of indirect reciprocity by image scoring, Nature
, 1998
"... review. Views or opinions expressed herein do not necessarily represent those of the Institute, its National Member Organizations, or other organizations supporting the work. IIASA STUDIES IN ADAPTIVE DYNAMICS NO. 27 The Adaptive Dynamics Network at IIASA fosters the development of new mathematical ..."
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Cited by 486 (16 self)
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review. Views or opinions expressed herein do not necessarily represent those of the Institute, its National Member Organizations, or other organizations supporting the work. IIASA STUDIES IN ADAPTIVE DYNAMICS NO. 27 The Adaptive Dynamics Network at IIASA fosters the development of new mathematical and conceptual techniques for understanding the evolution of complex adaptive systems. Focusing on these longterm implications of adaptive processes in systems of limited growth, the Adaptive Dynamics Network brings together scientists and institutions from around the world with IIASA acting as the central node. Scientific progress within the network
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