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8,980
Inside the black box: Raising standards through classroom assessment
 Phi Delta Kappan
, 1998
"... Raising the standards of learning that are achieved through school education is an important national priority. Governments have been vigorous in the last ten years in making changes in pursuit of this aim. National curriculum testing, the development of the GCSE, league tables of school performance ..."
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Cited by 564 (7 self)
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this task more effectively—what is missing from the policies is any direct help with this task. In terms of systems engineering, present policy seems to treat the classroom as a bla k box. Certain inputs from the outside are fed in or make demands—pupils, teachers, other resources, management rules
Smooth minimization of nonsmooth functions
 Math. Programming
, 2005
"... In this paper we propose a new approach for constructing efficient schemes for nonsmooth convex optimization. It is based on a special smoothing technique, which can be applied to the functions with explicit maxstructure. Our approach can be considered as an alternative to blackbox minimization. F ..."
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Cited by 523 (1 self)
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In this paper we propose a new approach for constructing efficient schemes for nonsmooth convex optimization. It is based on a special smoothing technique, which can be applied to the functions with explicit maxstructure. Our approach can be considered as an alternative to blackbox minimization
Keying hash functions for message authentication
, 1996
"... The use of cryptographic hash functions like MD5 or SHA for message authentication has become a standard approach inmanyInternet applications and protocols. Though very easy to implement, these mechanisms are usually based on ad hoc techniques that lack a sound security analysis. We present new cons ..."
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Cited by 611 (39 self)
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of the underlying hash function. In addition our schemes are e cient and practical. Their performance is essentially that of the underlying hash function. Moreover they use the hash function (or its compression function) as a black box, so that widely available library code or hardware can be used to implement them
Performance Debugging for Distributed Systems of Black Boxes
, 2003
"... Many interesting largescale systems are distributed systems of multiple communicating components. Such systems can be very hard to debug, especially when they exhibit poor performance. The problem becomes much harder when systems are composed of "blackbox" components: software from many ..."
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Cited by 316 (3 self)
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Many interesting largescale systems are distributed systems of multiple communicating components. Such systems can be very hard to debug, especially when they exhibit poor performance. The problem becomes much harder when systems are composed of "blackbox" components: software from many
MetaCost: A General Method for Making Classifiers CostSensitive
 In Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining
, 1999
"... Research in machine learning, statistics and related fields has produced a wide variety of algorithms for classification. However, most of these algorithms assume that all errors have the same cost, which is seldom the case in KDD prob lems. Individually making each classification learner costsensi ..."
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Cited by 415 (4 self)
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costsensitive is laborious, and often nontrivial. In this paper we propose a principled method for making an arbitrary classifier costsensitive by wrapping a costminimizing procedure around it. This procedure, called MetaCost, treats the underlying classifier as a black box, requiring no knowledge of its
Software Reflexion Models: Bridging the Gap between Source and HighLevel Models
 IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering
, 1995
"... Software engineers often use highlevel models (for instance, box and arrow sketches) to reason and communicate about an existing software system. One problem with highlevel models is that they are almost always inaccurate with respect to the system's source code. We have developed an approach ..."
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Cited by 404 (20 self)
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Software engineers often use highlevel models (for instance, box and arrow sketches) to reason and communicate about an existing software system. One problem with highlevel models is that they are almost always inaccurate with respect to the system's source code. We have developed
Blackbox and Graybox Strategies for Virtual Machine Migration
, 2007
"... Virtualization can provide significant benefits in data centers by enabling virtual machine migration to eliminate hotspots. We present Sandpiper, a system that automates the task of monitoring and detecting hotspots, determining a new mapping of physical to virtual resources and initiating the nece ..."
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Cited by 211 (7 self)
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the necessary migrations. Sandpiper implements a blackbox approach that is fully OS and applicationagnostic and a graybox approach that exploits OS and applicationlevel statistics. We implement our techniques in Xen and conduct a detailed evaluation using a mix of CPU, network and memory
The CQL Continuous Query Language: Semantic Foundations and Query Execution
 VLDB Journal
, 2003
"... CQL, a Continuous Query Language, is supported by the STREAM prototype Data Stream Management System at Stanford. CQL is an expressive SQLbased declarative language for registering continuous queries against streams and updatable relations. We begin by presenting an abstract semantics that relie ..."
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Cited by 354 (4 self)
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that relies only on "black box" mappings among streams and relations.
Nonlinear BlackBox Modeling in System Identification: a Unified Overview
 Automatica
, 1995
"... A nonlinear black box structure for a dynamical system is a model structure that is prepared to describe virtually any nonlinear dynamics. There has been considerable recent interest in this area with structures based on neural networks, radial basis networks, wavelet networks, hinging hyperplanes, ..."
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Cited by 225 (16 self)
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A nonlinear black box structure for a dynamical system is a model structure that is prepared to describe virtually any nonlinear dynamics. There has been considerable recent interest in this area with structures based on neural networks, radial basis networks, wavelet networks, hinging hyperplanes
SelfTesting/Correcting with Applications to Numerical Problems
, 1990
"... Suppose someone gives us an extremely fast program P that we can call as a black box to compute a function f . Should we trust that P works correctly? A selftesting/correcting pair allows us to: (1) estimate the probability that P (x) 6= f(x) when x is randomly chosen; (2) on any input x, compute ..."
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Cited by 361 (27 self)
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Suppose someone gives us an extremely fast program P that we can call as a black box to compute a function f . Should we trust that P works correctly? A selftesting/correcting pair allows us to: (1) estimate the probability that P (x) 6= f(x) when x is randomly chosen; (2) on any input x, compute
Results 1  10
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8,980