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Yu.Ya. Golub,
"... We analyzed localized vortices in nonneutral inhomogeneous by density and velocity electron beams propagating in vacuum along the external magnetic field. These vortices distinguish from wellknown vortices of LarichevReznik or Reznik types, which used in [1]. New types of vortex are obtained by n ..."
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We analyzed localized vortices in nonneutral inhomogeneous by density and velocity electron beams propagating in vacuum along the external magnetic field. These vortices distinguish from wellknown vortices of LarichevReznik or Reznik types, which used in [1]. New types of vortex are obtained by new method of nonlinear equations solution. That method distinguish from standard LarichevReznik or Reznik method, which used in [1]. It has been found new expression for electric field potential of vortex in a wave frame. The expression is axisymmetric in a wave frame. New vortices are the result of external disturbances or the appearance and development of instabilities like for example a diocotron instability in hollow beams and a slippinginstability in solid beams. 1 BASIC EQUATIONS We investigate the nonrelativistic electron beam, which propagating in vacuum along the external homogeneous magnetic field B0 in zdirection of cylindrical coordinate system (r,θ, z). An equilibrium and homogeneous by θ and z state of the system is characterized by radial distributions of electron density n0(r) and velocity v0[0,v0θ(r), v0z(r)] and the electron field potential ϕ0(r). We assume ωc2>>ωp2, where ωp the plasma electron frequency, ωc the electron cyclotron frequency. We investigate the nonsteady state of the system characterized by the deviations n, v, ϕ from equilibrium values of n0, v0, ϕ0. The solution of the motion and continuity equations for the particles and Poisson equation for the electric fields potential we choose in the form of a travelling wave in which all the parameters are functions of the variables r and η=θ+kzzωt with the constant wave number kz and frequency ω. If we neglect by inertial drift of the electrons due to large value of ωc, we obtain equation as in [2]: 0
StrategyProofness and Arrow’s Conditions: Existence and Correspondence Theorems for Voting Procedures and Social Welfare Functions
 J. Econ. Theory
, 1975
"... Consider a committee which must select one alternative from a set of three or more alternatives. Committee members each cast a ballot which the voting procedure counts. The voting procedure is strategyproof if it always induces every committee member to cast a ballot revealing his preference. I pro ..."
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Cited by 542 (0 self)
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Consider a committee which must select one alternative from a set of three or more alternatives. Committee members each cast a ballot which the voting procedure counts. The voting procedure is strategyproof if it always induces every committee member to cast a ballot revealing his preference. I prove three theorems. First, every strategyproof voting procedure is dictatorial. Second, this paper’s strategyproofness condition for voting procedures corresponds to Arrow’s rationality, independence of irrelevant alternatives, nonnegative response, and citizens ’ sovereignty conditions for social welfare functions. Third, Arrow’s general possibility theorem is proven in a new manner. 1. INTR~OUOTI~N Almost every participant in the formal deliberations of a committee realizes that situations may occur where he can manipulate the outcome of the committee’s vote by misrepresenting his preferences. For example, a voter in choosing among a Democrat, a Republican, and a minor party candidate may decide to follow the “sophisticated strategy ” of voting for his second choice, the Democrat, instead of his “sincere strategy ” of voting for his first choice, the minor party candidate, because he thinks that a vote for the minor party candidate would be a wasted vote on a hopeless cause.l The fundamental question I ask in this paper is if a committee can eliminate use of sophisticated strategies among its members by constructing a voting procedure that is “strategyproof ” in the sense * I am indebted to JeanMarie Blin, Richard Day, Theodore Groves, Rubin Saposnik, Maria Schmundt, Hugo Sonnenschein, and an anonymous referee for their help in the development of this paper. 1 Farquharson [4] introduced the terms sophisticated strategy and sincere strategy.
Surface deformation due to shear and tensile faults in a halfspace
, 1985
"... A complete set of closed analytical expressions is presented in a unified manner for the internal displacements and strains due to shear and tensile faults in a halfspace for both point and finite rectangular sources. These expressions are particularly compact and systematically composed of terms r ..."
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Cited by 698 (1 self)
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A complete set of closed analytical expressions is presented in a unified manner for the internal displacements and strains due to shear and tensile faults in a halfspace for both point and finite rectangular sources. These expressions are particularly compact and systematically composed of terms representing deformations in an infinite medium, a term related to surface deformation and that is multiplied by the depth of observation point. Several practical suggestions to avoid mathematical singularities and computational instabilities are also presented. The expressions derived here represent powerful tools both for the observational and theoretical analyses of static field changes associated with earthquake and volcanic phenomena.
Determining Optical Flow
 ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE
, 1981
"... Optical flow cannot be computed locally, since only one independent measurement is available from the image sequence at a point, while the flow velocity has two components. A second constraint is needed. A method for finding the optical flow pattern is presented which assumes that the apparent veloc ..."
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Cited by 2379 (9 self)
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Optical flow cannot be computed locally, since only one independent measurement is available from the image sequence at a point, while the flow velocity has two components. A second constraint is needed. A method for finding the optical flow pattern is presented which assumes that the apparent velocity of the brightness pattern varies smoothly almost everywhere in the image. An iterative implementation is shown which successfully computes the optical flow for a number of synthetic image sequences. The algorithm is robust in that it can handle image sequences that are quantized rather coarsely in space and time. It is also insensitive to quantization of brightness levels and additive noise. Examples are included where the assumption of smoothness is violated at singular points or along lines in the image.
Law and finance
 Journal of Political Economy
, 1998
"... This paper examines legal rules covering protection of corporate shareholders and creditors, the origin of these rules, and the quality of their enforcement in 49 countries. The results show that commonlaw countries generally have the strongest, and Frenchcivillaw countries the weakest, legal pr ..."
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Cited by 1444 (19 self)
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This paper examines legal rules covering protection of corporate shareholders and creditors, the origin of these rules, and the quality of their enforcement in 49 countries. The results show that commonlaw countries generally have the strongest, and Frenchcivillaw countries the weakest, legal protections of investors, with German and Scandinaviancivillaw countries located in the middle. We also find that concentration of ownership of shares in the largest public companies is negatively related to investor protections, consistent with the hypothesis that small, diversified shareholders are unlikely to be important in countries that fail to protect their rights. I. Overview of the Issues In the traditional finance of Modigliani and Miller (1958), securities are recognized by their cash flows. For example, debt has a fixed promised stream of interest payments, whereas equity entitles its
Efficiently computing static single assignment form and the control dependence graph
 ACM TRANSACTIONS ON PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES AND SYSTEMS
, 1991
"... In optimizing compilers, data structure choices directly influence the power and efficiency of practical program optimization. A poor choice of data structure can inhibit optimization or slow compilation to the point that advanced optimization features become undesirable. Recently, static single ass ..."
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Cited by 997 (8 self)
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In optimizing compilers, data structure choices directly influence the power and efficiency of practical program optimization. A poor choice of data structure can inhibit optimization or slow compilation to the point that advanced optimization features become undesirable. Recently, static single assignment form and the control dependence graph have been proposed to represent data flow and control flow propertiee of programs. Each of these previously unrelated techniques lends efficiency and power to a useful class of program optimization. Although both of these structures are attractive, the difficulty of their construction and their potential size have discouraged their use. We present new algorithms that efficiently compute these data structures for arbitrary control flow graphs. The algorithms use dominance frontiers, a new concept that may have other applications. We also give analytical and experimental evidence that all of these data structures are usually linear in the size of the original program. This paper thus presents strong evidence that these structures can be of practical use in optimization.
Planning Algorithms
, 2004
"... This book presents a unified treatment of many different kinds of planning algorithms. The subject lies at the crossroads between robotics, control theory, artificial intelligence, algorithms, and computer graphics. The particular subjects covered include motion planning, discrete planning, planning ..."
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Cited by 1108 (51 self)
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This book presents a unified treatment of many different kinds of planning algorithms. The subject lies at the crossroads between robotics, control theory, artificial intelligence, algorithms, and computer graphics. The particular subjects covered include motion planning, discrete planning, planning under uncertainty, sensorbased planning, visibility, decisiontheoretic planning, game theory, information spaces, reinforcement learning, nonlinear systems, trajectory planning, nonholonomic planning, and kinodynamic planning.
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