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Maximum likelihood from incomplete data via the EM algorithm
 JOURNAL OF THE ROYAL STATISTICAL SOCIETY, SERIES B
, 1977
"... A broadly applicable algorithm for computing maximum likelihood estimates from incomplete data is presented at various levels of generality. Theory showing the monotone behaviour of the likelihood and convergence of the algorithm is derived. Many examples are sketched, including missing value situat ..."
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Cited by 11807 (17 self)
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situations, applications to grouped, censored or truncated data, finite mixture models, variance component estimation, hyperparameter estimation, iteratively reweighted least squares and factor analysis.
On the Diameter of Finite Groups
 SYMPOSIUM ON FOUNDATIONS OF COMPUTER SCIENCE
, 1990
"... The diameter of a group G with respect to a set S of generators is the maximum over g 2 G of the length of the shortest word in S [ S 1 representing g. This concept arises in the contexts of efficient communication networks and Rubik's cube type puzzles. "Best" generators (giving mini ..."
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Cited by 33 (4 self)
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The diameter of a group G with respect to a set S of generators is the maximum over g 2 G of the length of the shortest word in S [ S 1 representing g. This concept arises in the contexts of efficient communication networks and Rubik's cube type puzzles. "Best" generators (giving
Abstract On the diameter of finite groups
"... The diameter of a group G with respect to a set S of generators is the maximum over g E G of the length of the shortest word in S U S ’ representing g. This concept arises in the contexts of efficient communication networks and Rubik’s cube type puzzles. “Best” generators (giving minimum diameter ..."
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is essentially irrelevant if IS1 is allowed to exceed (logIGI)’+C (c> 0), it plays a heavy role when 1.51 = O(1). In particular, every nonabelian finite simple group has a set of 5 7 generators giving logarithmic diameter. This cannot happen for groups with an abelian subgroup of bounded index. Regarding
Graphs over Time: Densification Laws, Shrinking Diameters and Possible Explanations
, 2005
"... How do real graphs evolve over time? What are “normal” growth patterns in social, technological, and information networks? Many studies have discovered patterns in static graphs, identifying properties in a single snapshot of a large network, or in a very small number of snapshots; these include hea ..."
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Cited by 534 (48 self)
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How do real graphs evolve over time? What are “normal” growth patterns in social, technological, and information networks? Many studies have discovered patterns in static graphs, identifying properties in a single snapshot of a large network, or in a very small number of snapshots; these include heavy tails for in and outdegree distributions, communities, smallworld phenomena, and others. However, given the lack of information about network evolution over long periods, it has been hard to convert these findings into statements about trends over time. Here we study a wide range of real graphs, and we observe some surprising phenomena. First, most of these graphs densify over time, with the number of edges growing superlinearly in the number of nodes. Second, the average distance between nodes often shrinks over time, in contrast to the conventional wisdom that such distance parameters should increase slowly as a function of the number of nodes (like O(log n) orO(log(log n)). Existing graph generation models do not exhibit these types of behavior, even at a qualitative level. We provide a new graph generator, based on a “forest fire” spreading process, that has a simple, intuitive justification, requires very few parameters (like the “flammability” of nodes), and produces graphs exhibiting the full range of properties observed both in prior work and in the present study.
Bandera: Extracting Finitestate Models from Java Source Code
 IN PROCEEDINGS OF THE 22ND INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON SOFTWARE ENGINEERING
, 2000
"... Finitestate verification techniques, such as model checking, have shown promise as a costeffective means for finding defects in hardware designs. To date, the application of these techniques to software has been hindered by several obstacles. Chief among these is the problem of constructing a fini ..."
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Cited by 653 (35 self)
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Finitestate verification techniques, such as model checking, have shown promise as a costeffective means for finding defects in hardware designs. To date, the application of these techniques to software has been hindered by several obstacles. Chief among these is the problem of constructing a
Lightweight causal and atomic group multicast
 ACM TRANSACTIONS ON COMPUTER SYSTEMS
, 1991
"... ..."
Secure Group Communications Using Key Graphs
, 1998
"... Many emerging applications (e.g., teleconference, realtime information services, pay per view, distributed interactive simulation, and collaborative work) are based upon a group communications model, i.e., they require packet delivery from one or more authorized senders to a very large number of au ..."
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Cited by 552 (17 self)
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Many emerging applications (e.g., teleconference, realtime information services, pay per view, distributed interactive simulation, and collaborative work) are based upon a group communications model, i.e., they require packet delivery from one or more authorized senders to a very large number
The process group approach to reliable distributed computing
 Communications of the ACM
, 1993
"... The difficulty of developing reliable distributed softwme is an impediment to applying distributed computing technology in many settings. Expeti _ with the Isis system suggests that a structured approach based on virtually synchronous _ groups yields systems that are substantially easier to develop, ..."
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Cited by 573 (19 self)
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The difficulty of developing reliable distributed softwme is an impediment to applying distributed computing technology in many settings. Expeti _ with the Isis system suggests that a structured approach based on virtually synchronous _ groups yields systems that are substantially easier to develop
Panel Cointegration; Asymptotic and Finite Sample Properties of Pooled Time Series Tests, With an Application to the PPP Hypothesis; New Results. Working paper
, 1997
"... We examine properties of residualbased tests for the null of no cointegration for dynamic panels in which both the shortrun dynamics and the longrun slope coefficients are permitted to be heterogeneous across individual members of the panel+ The tests also allow for individual heterogeneous fixed ..."
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Cited by 499 (13 self)
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fixed effects and trend terms, and we consider both pooled within dimension tests and group mean between dimension tests+ We derive limiting distributions for these and show that they are normal and free of nuisance parameters+ We also provide Monte Carlo evidence to demonstrate their small sample size
A public key cryptosystem and a signature scheme based on discrete logarithms
 Adv. in Cryptology, SpringerVerlag
, 1985
"... AbstractA new signature scheme is proposed, together with an implementation of the DiffieHellman key distribution scheme that achieves a public key cryptosystem. The security of both systems relies on the difficulty of computing discrete logarithms over finite fields. I. ..."
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Cited by 1520 (0 self)
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AbstractA new signature scheme is proposed, together with an implementation of the DiffieHellman key distribution scheme that achieves a public key cryptosystem. The security of both systems relies on the difficulty of computing discrete logarithms over finite fields. I.
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