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Improved Cryptanalysis of Skein
"... Abstract. The hash function Skein is the submission of Ferguson et al. to the NIST Hash Competition, and is arguably a serious candidate for selection as SHA3. This paper presents the first thirdparty analysis of Skein, with an extensive study of its main component: the block cipher Threefish. We ..."
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Abstract. The hash function Skein is the submission of Ferguson et al. to the NIST Hash Competition, and is arguably a serious candidate for selection as SHA3. This paper presents the first thirdparty analysis of Skein, with an extensive study of its main component: the block cipher Threefish. We
Algorithms for Quantum Computation: Discrete Logarithms and Factoring
, 1994
"... A computer is generally considered to be a universal computational device; i.e., it is believed able to simulate any physical computational device with a increase in computation time of at most a polynomial factor. It is not clear whether this is still true when quantum mechanics is taken into consi ..."
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Cited by 1103 (7 self)
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of steps which is polynomial in the input size, e.g., the number of digits of the integer to be factored. These two problems are generally considered hard on a classical computer and have been used as the basis of several proposed cryptosystems. (We thus give the first examples of quantum cryptanalysis.) 1
Timing Attacks on Implementations of DiffieHellman, RSA, DSS, and Other Systems
, 1996
"... By carefully measuring the amount of time required to perform private key operations, attackers may be able to find fixed DiffieHellman exponents, factor RSA keys, and break other cryptosystems. Against a vulnerable system, the attack is computationally inexpensive and often requires only known cip ..."
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Cited by 644 (3 self)
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By carefully measuring the amount of time required to perform private key operations, attackers may be able to find fixed DiffieHellman exponents, factor RSA keys, and break other cryptosystems. Against a vulnerable system, the attack is computationally inexpensive and often requires only known ciphertext. Actual systems are potentially at risk, including cryptographic tokens, networkbased cryptosystems, and other applications where attackers can make reasonably accurate timing measurements. Techniques for preventing the attack for RSA and DiffieHellman are presented. Some cryptosystems will need to be revised to protect against the attack, and new protocols and algorithms may need to incorporate measures to prevent timing attacks.
A New Kind of Science
, 2002
"... “Somebody says, ‘You know, you people always say that space is continuous. How do you know when you get to a small enough dimension that there really are enough points in between, that it isn’t just a lot of dots separated by little distances? ’ Or they say, ‘You know those quantum mechanical amplit ..."
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Cited by 850 (0 self)
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“Somebody says, ‘You know, you people always say that space is continuous. How do you know when you get to a small enough dimension that there really are enough points in between, that it isn’t just a lot of dots separated by little distances? ’ Or they say, ‘You know those quantum mechanical amplitudes you told me about, they’re so complicated and absurd, what makes you think those are right? Maybe they aren’t right. ’ Such remarks are obvious and are perfectly clear to anybody who is working on this problem. It does not do any good to point this out.” —Richard Feynman [1, p.161]
Good ErrorCorrecting Codes based on Very Sparse Matrices
, 1999
"... We study two families of errorcorrecting codes defined in terms of very sparse matrices. "MN" (MacKayNeal) codes are recently invented, and "Gallager codes" were first investigated in 1962, but appear to have been largely forgotten, in spite of their excellent properties. The ..."
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Cited by 741 (23 self)
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We study two families of errorcorrecting codes defined in terms of very sparse matrices. "MN" (MacKayNeal) codes are recently invented, and "Gallager codes" were first investigated in 1962, but appear to have been largely forgotten, in spite of their excellent properties. The decoding of both codes can be tackled with a practical sumproduct algorithm. We prove that these codes are "very good," in that sequences of codes exist which, when optimally decoded, achieve information rates up to the Shannon limit. This result holds not only for the binarysymmetric channel but also for any channel with symmetric stationary ergodic noise. We give experimental results for binarysymmetric channels and Gaussian channels demonstrating that practical performance substantially better than that of standard convolutional and concatenated codes can be achieved; indeed, the performance of Gallager codes is almost as close to the Shannon limit as that of turbo codes.
Data Security
, 1979
"... The rising abuse of computers and increasing threat to personal privacy through data banks have stimulated much interest m the techmcal safeguards for data. There are four kinds of safeguards, each related to but distract from the others. Access controls regulate which users may enter the system and ..."
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Cited by 611 (3 self)
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The rising abuse of computers and increasing threat to personal privacy through data banks have stimulated much interest m the techmcal safeguards for data. There are four kinds of safeguards, each related to but distract from the others. Access controls regulate which users may enter the system and subsequently whmh data sets an active user may read or wrote. Flow controls regulate the dissemination of values among the data sets accessible to a user. Inference controls protect statistical databases by preventing questioners from deducing confidential information by posing carefully designed sequences of statistical queries and correlating the responses. Statlstmal data banks are much less secure than most people beheve. Data encryption attempts to prevent unauthorized disclosure of confidential information in transit or m storage. This paper describes the general nature of controls of each type, the kinds of problems they can and cannot solve, and their inherent limitations and weaknesses. The paper is intended for a general audience with little background in the area.
NonMalleable Cryptography
 SIAM Journal on Computing
, 2000
"... The notion of nonmalleable cryptography, an extension of semantically secure cryptography, is defined. Informally, in the context of encryption the additional requirement is that given the ciphertext it is impossible to generate a different ciphertext so that the respective plaintexts are related. ..."
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Cited by 490 (21 self)
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The notion of nonmalleable cryptography, an extension of semantically secure cryptography, is defined. Informally, in the context of encryption the additional requirement is that given the ciphertext it is impossible to generate a different ciphertext so that the respective plaintexts are related. The same concept makes sense in the contexts of string commitment and zeroknowledge proofs of possession of knowledge. Nonmalleable schemes for each of these three problems are presented. The schemes do not assume a trusted center; a user need not know anything about the number or identity of other system users. Our cryptosystem is the first proven to be secure against a strong type of chosen ciphertext attack proposed by Rackoff and Simon, in which the attacker knows the ciphertext she wishes to break and can query the decryption oracle on any ciphertext other than the target.
On the Importance of Checking Cryptographic Protocols for Faults
, 1997
"... We present a theoretical model for breaking various cryptographic schemes by taking advantage of random hardware faults. We show how to attack certain implementations of RSA and Rabin signatures. An implementation of RSA based on the Chinese Remainder Theorem can be broken using a single erroneous s ..."
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Cited by 396 (8 self)
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. Schnorr's protocol can also be broken, but a larger number of erroneous executions is needed. Keywords: Hardware faults, Cryptanalysis, RSA, FiatShamir, Schnorr, Public key systems, Identification protocols. 1 Introduction Direct attacks on the famous RSA cryptosystem seem to require that one factor
Extending and Implementing the Stable Model Semantics
, 2002
"... A novel logic program like language, weight constraint rules, is developed for answer set programming purposes. It generalizes normal logic programs by allowing weight constraints in place of literals to represent, e.g., cardinality and resource constraints and by providing optimization capabilities ..."
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Cited by 395 (8 self)
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A novel logic program like language, weight constraint rules, is developed for answer set programming purposes. It generalizes normal logic programs by allowing weight constraints in place of literals to represent, e.g., cardinality and resource constraints and by providing optimization capabilities. A declarative semantics is developed which extends the stable model semantics of normal programs. The computational complexity of the language is shown to be similar to that of normal programs under the stable model semantics. A simple embedding of general weight constraint rules to a small subclass of the language called basic constraint rules is devised. An implementation of the language, the smodels system, is developed based on this embedding. It uses a two level architecture consisting of a frontend and a kernel language implementation. The frontend allows restricted use of variables and functions and compiles general weight constraint rules to basic constraint rules. A major part of the work is the development of an ecient search procedure for computing stable models for this kernel language. The procedure is compared with and empirically tested against satis ability checkers and an implementation of the stable model semantics. It offers a competitive implementation of the stable model semantics for normal programs and attractive performance for problems where the new types of rules provide a compact representation.
The Hero with a Thousand Faces
, 1972
"... Botiingen Foundation, andpttt.!.,.: b % / ,.,;:,c,m B<,.ik.*, second ..."
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Cited by 353 (0 self)
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Botiingen Foundation, andpttt.!.,.: b % / ,.,;:,c,m B<,.ik.*, second
Results 1  10
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