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Induction of Decision Trees
 MACH. LEARN
, 1986
"... The technology for building knowledgebased systems by inductive inference from examples has been demonstrated successfully in several practical applications. This paper summarizes an approach to synthesizing decision trees that has been used in a variety of systems, and it describes one such syste ..."
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Cited by 4303 (4 self)
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The technology for building knowledgebased systems by inductive inference from examples has been demonstrated successfully in several practical applications. This paper summarizes an approach to synthesizing decision trees that has been used in a variety of systems, and it describes one such system, ID3, in detail. Results from recent studies show ways in which the methodology can be modified to deal with information that is noisy and/or incomplete. A reported shortcoming of the basic algorithm is discussed and two means of overcoming it are compared. The paper concludes with illustrations of current research directions.
The Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML): a medium for representation and exchange of biochemical network models
 Bioinformatics
, 2003
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Detection of Abrupt Changes: Theory and Application
 HTTP://PEOPLE.IRISA.FR/MICHELE.BASSEVILLE/KNIGA/
, 1993
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Superconformal field theory on threebranes at a CalabiYau singularity
 Nucl. Phys. B
, 1998
"... Just as parallel threebranes on a smooth manifold are related to string theory on AdS5 × S 5, parallel threebranes near a conical singularity are related to string theory on AdS5 × X5, for a suitable X5. For the example of the conifold singularity, for which X5 = (SU(2) × SU(2))/U(1), we argue that ..."
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Cited by 690 (37 self)
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Just as parallel threebranes on a smooth manifold are related to string theory on AdS5 × S 5, parallel threebranes near a conical singularity are related to string theory on AdS5 × X5, for a suitable X5. For the example of the conifold singularity, for which X5 = (SU(2) × SU(2))/U(1), we argue that string theory on AdS5 × X5 can be described by a certain N = 1 supersymmetric gauge theory which we describe in detail.
Fusion, Propagation, and Structuring in Belief Networks
 ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE
, 1986
"... Belief networks are directed acyclic graphs in which the nodes represent propositions (or variables), the arcs signify direct dependencies between the linked propositions, and the strengths of these dependencies are quantified by conditional probabilities. A network of this sort can be used to repre ..."
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Cited by 482 (8 self)
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Belief networks are directed acyclic graphs in which the nodes represent propositions (or variables), the arcs signify direct dependencies between the linked propositions, and the strengths of these dependencies are quantified by conditional probabilities. A network of this sort can be used to represent the generic knowledge of a domain expert, and it turns into a computational architecture if the links are used not merely for storing factual knowledge but also for directing and activating the data flow in the computations which manipulate this knowledge. The first part of the paper deals with the task of fusing and propagating the impacts of new information through the networks in such a way that, when equilibrium is reached, each proposition will be assigned a measure of belief consistent with the axioms of probability theory. It is shown that if the network is singly connected (e.g. treestructured), then probabilities can be updated by local propagation in an isomorphic network of parallel and autonomous processors and that the impact of new information can be imparted to all propositions in time proportional to the longest path in the network. The second part of the paper deals with the problem of finding a treestructured representation for a collection of probabilistically coupled propositions using auxiliary (dummy) variables, colloquially called "hidden causes. " It is shown that if such a treestructured representation exists, then it is possible to uniquely uncover the topology of the tree by observing pairwise dependencies among the available propositions (i.e., the leaves of the tree). The entire tree structure, including the strengths of all internal relationships, can be reconstructed in time proportional to n log n, where n is the number of leaves.
Estimating Attributes: Analysis and Extensions of RELIEF
, 1994
"... . In the context of machine learning from examples this paper deals with the problem of estimating the quality of attributes with and without dependencies among them. Kira and Rendell (1992a,b) developed an algorithm called RELIEF, which was shown to be very efficient in estimating attributes. Origi ..."
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Cited by 450 (23 self)
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. In the context of machine learning from examples this paper deals with the problem of estimating the quality of attributes with and without dependencies among them. Kira and Rendell (1992a,b) developed an algorithm called RELIEF, which was shown to be very efficient in estimating attributes. Original RELIEF can deal with discrete and continuous attributes and is limited to only twoclass problems. In this paper RELIEF is analysed and extended to deal with noisy, incomplete, and multiclass data sets. The extensions are verified on various artificial and one well known realworld problem. 1 Introduction This paper deals with the problem of estimating the quality of attributes with strong dependencies to other attributes which seems to be the key issue of machine learning in general. Namely, for particular problems (e.q. parity problems of higher degrees) the discovering of dependencies between attributes may be unfeasible due to combinatorial explosion. In such cases efficient heuris...
Reconciling Schemas of Disparate Data Sources: A MachineLearning Approach
 In SIGMOD Conference
, 2001
"... A dataintegration system provides access to a multitude of data sources through a single mediated schema. A key bottleneck in building such systems has been the laborious manual construction of semantic mappings between the source schemas and the mediated schema. We describe LSD, a system that empl ..."
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Cited by 423 (50 self)
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A dataintegration system provides access to a multitude of data sources through a single mediated schema. A key bottleneck in building such systems has been the laborious manual construction of semantic mappings between the source schemas and the mediated schema. We describe LSD, a system that employs and extends current machinelearning techniques to semiautomatically find such mappings. LSD first asks the user to provide the semantic mappings for a small set of data sources, then uses these mappings together with the sources to train a set of learners. Each learner exploits a different type of information either in the source schemas or in their data. Once the learners have been trained, LSD nds semantic mappings for a new data source by applying the learners, then combining their predictions using a metalearner. To further improve matching accuracy, we extend machine learning techniques so that LSD can incorporate domain constraints as an additional source of knowledge, and develop a novel learner that utilizes the structural information in XML documents. Our approach thus is distinguished in that it incorporates multiple types of knowledge. Importantly, its architecture is extensible to additional learners that may exploit new kinds of information. We describe a set of experiments on several realworld domains, and show that LSD proposes semantic mappings with a high degree of accuracy.
Induction of Selective Bayesian Classifiers
 CONFERENCE ON UNCERTAINTY IN ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE
, 1994
"... In this paper, we examine previous work on the naive Bayesian classifier and review its limitations, which include a sensitivity to correlated features. We respond to this problem by embedding the naive Bayesian induction scheme within an algorithm that carries out a greedy search through the space ..."
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Cited by 262 (7 self)
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In this paper, we examine previous work on the naive Bayesian classifier and review its limitations, which include a sensitivity to correlated features. We respond to this problem by embedding the naive Bayesian induction scheme within an algorithm that carries out a greedy search through the space of features. We hypothesize that this approach will improve asymptotic accuracy in domains that involve correlated features without reducing the rate of learning in ones that do not. We report experimental results on six natural domains, including comparisons with decisiontree induction, that support these hypotheses. In closing, we discuss other approaches to extending naive Bayesian classifiers and outline some directions for future research.
LexRank: Graphbased lexical centrality as salience in text summarization
 Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research
, 2004
"... We introduce a stochastic graphbased method for computing relative importance of textual units for Natural Language Processing. We test the technique on the problem of Text Summarization (TS). Extractive TS relies on the concept of sentence salience to identify the most important sentences in a doc ..."
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Cited by 259 (9 self)
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We introduce a stochastic graphbased method for computing relative importance of textual units for Natural Language Processing. We test the technique on the problem of Text Summarization (TS). Extractive TS relies on the concept of sentence salience to identify the most important sentences in a document or set of documents. Salience is typically dened in terms of the presence of particular important words or in terms of similarity to a centroid pseudosentence. We consider a new approach, LexRank, for computing sentence importance based on the concept of eigenvector centrality in a graph representation of sentences. In this model, a connectivity matrix based on intrasentence cosine similarity is used as the adjacency matrix of the graph representation of sentences. Our system, based on LexRank ranked in rst place in more than one task in the recent DUC 2004 evaluation. In this paper we present a detailed analysis of our approach and apply it to a larger data set including data from earlier DUC evaluations. We discuss several methods to compute centrality using the similarity graph. The results show that degreebased methods (including LexRank) outperform both centroidbased methods and other systems participating in DUC in most of the cases. Furthermore, the LexRank with threshold method outperforms the other degreebased techniques including continuous LexRank. We also show that our approach is quite insensitive to the noise in the data that may result from an imperfect topical clustering of documents. 1.
The Technological Society
, 1964
"... A penetrating analysis of our technical civilization and of the effect of an increasingly standardized culture on the future of man ..."
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Cited by 259 (1 self)
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A penetrating analysis of our technical civilization and of the effect of an increasingly standardized culture on the future of man
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