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Evolving Neural Networks through Augmenting Topologies
 Evolutionary Computation
"... An important question in neuroevolution is how to gain an advantage from evolving neural network topologies along with weights. We present a method, NeuroEvolution of Augmenting Topologies (NEAT), which outperforms the best fixedtopology method on a challenging benchmark reinforcement learning task ..."
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Cited by 524 (113 self)
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the possibility of evolving increasingly complex solutions over generations, and strengthening the analogy with biological evolution.
Requirements for Internet Hosts  Communication Layers
 RFC1812] [RFC2277] Baker, F., "Requirements for IP Version 4 Routers", RFC 1812
, 1989
"... This RFC is an official specification for the Internet community. It incorporates by reference, amends, corrects, and supplements the primary protocol standards documents relating to hosts. Distribution of this document is unlimited. Summary This is one RFC of a pair that defines and discusses the r ..."
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Cited by 521 (6 self)
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the requirements for Internet host software. This RFC covers the communications protocol layers: link layer, IP layer, and transport layer; its companion RFC1123 covers the application and support protocols.
Goaldirected Requirements Acquisition
 SCIENCE OF COMPUTER PROGRAMMING
, 1993
"... Requirements analysis includes a preliminary acquisition step where a global model for the specification of the system and its environment is elaborated. This model, called requirements model, involves concepts that are currently not supported by existing formal specification languages, such as goal ..."
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Cited by 572 (17 self)
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Requirements analysis includes a preliminary acquisition step where a global model for the specification of the system and its environment is elaborated. This model, called requirements model, involves concepts that are currently not supported by existing formal specification languages
Peroxisome proliferatoractivated receptors in vascular biology and atherosclerosis: emerging insights for evolving paradigms. Curr Atheroscler Rep 2000
"... Updated information and services can be found at: ..."
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Cited by 540 (32 self)
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Updated information and services can be found at:
Finding community structure in networks using the eigenvectors of matrices
, 2006
"... We consider the problem of detecting communities or modules in networks, groups of vertices with a higherthanaverage density of edges connecting them. Previous work indicates that a robust approach to this problem is the maximization of the benefit function known as “modularity ” over possible div ..."
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Cited by 500 (0 self)
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We consider the problem of detecting communities or modules in networks, groups of vertices with a higherthanaverage density of edges connecting them. Previous work indicates that a robust approach to this problem is the maximization of the benefit function known as “modularity ” over possible divisions of a network. Here we show that this maximization process can be written in terms of the eigenspectrum of a matrix we call the modularity matrix, which plays a role in community detection similar to that played by the graph Laplacian in graph partitioning calculations. This result leads us to a number of possible algorithms for detecting community structure, as well as several other results, including a spectral measure of bipartite structure in networks and a new centrality measure that identifies those vertices that occupy central positions within the communities to which they belong. The algorithms and measures proposed are illustrated with applications to a variety of realworld complex networks.
A solution to Plato’s problem: The latent semantic analysis theory of acquisition, induction, and representation of knowledge
 PSYCHOLOGICAL REVIEW
, 1997
"... How do people know as much as they do with as little information as they get? The problem takes many forms; learning vocabulary from text is an especially dramatic and convenient case for research. A new general theory of acquired similarity and knowledge representation, latent semantic analysis (LS ..."
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Cited by 1772 (10 self)
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How do people know as much as they do with as little information as they get? The problem takes many forms; learning vocabulary from text is an especially dramatic and convenient case for research. A new general theory of acquired similarity and knowledge representation, latent semantic analysis (LSA), is presented and used to successfully simulate such learning and several other psycholinguistic phenomena. By inducing global knowledge indirectly from local cooccurrence data in a large body of representative text, LSA acquired knowledge about the full vocabulary of English at a comparable rate to schoolchildren. LSA uses no prior linguistic or perceptual similarity knowledge; it is based solely on a general mathematical learning method that achieves powerful inductive effects by extracting the right number of dimensions (e.g., 300) to represent objects and contexts. Relations to other theories, phenomena, and problems are sketched.
Evolving to a New Dominant Logic for Marketing
 Journal of Marketing
, 2004
"... Marketing inherited a model of exchange from economics, which had a dominant logic based on the exchange of “goods, ” which usually are manufactured output. The dominant logic focused on tangible resources, embedded value, and transactions. Over the past several decades, new perspectives have emerge ..."
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Cited by 449 (12 self)
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. The authors explore this evolving logic and the corresponding shift in perspective for marketing scholars, marketing practitioners, and marketing educators.
Closedform solution of absolute orientation using unit quaternions
 J. Opt. Soc. Am. A
, 1987
"... Finding the relationship between two coordinate systems using pairs of measurements of the coordinates of a number of points in both systems is a classic photogrammetric task. It finds applications in stereophotogrammetry and in robotics. I present here a closedform solution to the leastsquares pr ..."
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Cited by 973 (4 self)
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Finding the relationship between two coordinate systems using pairs of measurements of the coordinates of a number of points in both systems is a classic photogrammetric task. It finds applications in stereophotogrammetry and in robotics. I present here a closedform solution to the least
For Most Large Underdetermined Systems of Linear Equations the Minimal ℓ1norm Solution is also the Sparsest Solution
 Comm. Pure Appl. Math
, 2004
"... We consider linear equations y = Φα where y is a given vector in R n, Φ is a given n by m matrix with n < m ≤ An, and we wish to solve for α ∈ R m. We suppose that the columns of Φ are normalized to unit ℓ 2 norm 1 and we place uniform measure on such Φ. We prove the existence of ρ = ρ(A) so that ..."
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Cited by 560 (10 self)
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that for large n, and for all Φ’s except a negligible fraction, the following property holds: For every y having a representation y = Φα0 by a coefficient vector α0 ∈ R m with fewer than ρ · n nonzeros, the solution α1 of the ℓ 1 minimization problem min �x�1 subject to Φα = y is unique and equal to α0
Genetic Programming
, 1997
"... Introduction Genetic programming is a domainindependent problemsolving approach in which computer programs are evolved to solve, or approximately solve, problems. Genetic programming is based on the Darwinian principle of reproduction and survival of the fittest and analogs of naturally occurring ..."
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Cited by 1051 (12 self)
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is now called the genetic algorithm (GA). The genetic algorithm attempts to find a good (or best) solution to the problem by genetically breeding a population of individuals over a series of generations. In the genetic algorithm, each individual in the population represents a candidate solut
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