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Complex ZeroKnowledge Proofs of Knowledge Are Easy to Use
 Provable Security, First International Conference, ProvSec 2007
, 2007
"... Abstract. Since 1985 and their introduction by Goldwasser, Micali and Rackoff, followed in 1988 by Feige, Fiat and Shamir, zeroknowledge proofs of knowledge have become a central tool in modern cryptography. Many articles use them as building blocks to construct more complex protocols, for which se ..."
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Abstract. Since 1985 and their introduction by Goldwasser, Micali and Rackoff, followed in 1988 by Feige, Fiat and Shamir, zeroknowledge proofs of knowledge have become a central tool in modern cryptography. Many articles use them as building blocks to construct more complex protocols, for which
On the Composition of ZeroKnowledge Proof Systems
 SIAM Journal on Computing
, 1990
"... : The wide applicability of zeroknowledge interactive proofs comes from the possibility of using these proofs as subroutines in cryptographic protocols. A basic question concerning this use is whether the (sequential and/or parallel) composition of zeroknowledge protocols is zeroknowledge too. We ..."
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Cited by 214 (15 self)
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: The wide applicability of zeroknowledge interactive proofs comes from the possibility of using these proofs as subroutines in cryptographic protocols. A basic question concerning this use is whether the (sequential and/or parallel) composition of zeroknowledge protocols is zeroknowledge too
Noninteractive ZeroKnowledge
 SIAM J. COMPUTING
, 1991
"... This paper investigates the possibility of disposing of interaction between prover and verifier in a zeroknowledge proof if they share beforehand a short random string. Without any assumption, it is proven that noninteractive zeroknowledge proofs exist for some numbertheoretic languages for which ..."
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Cited by 216 (19 self)
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This paper investigates the possibility of disposing of interaction between prover and verifier in a zeroknowledge proof if they share beforehand a short random string. Without any assumption, it is proven that noninteractive zeroknowledge proofs exist for some numbertheoretic languages
The Complexity of Perfect ZeroKnowledge
, 1987
"... A Perfect ZeroKnowledge interactive proof system convinces a verifier that a string is in a language without revealing any additional knowledge in an informationtheoretic sense. We show that for any language that has a perfect zeroknowledge proof system, its complement has a short interactive pro ..."
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Cited by 95 (3 self)
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protocol. This result implies that there are not any perfect zeroknowledge protocols for NPcomplete languages unless the polynomial time hierarchy collapses. This paper demonstrates that knowledge complexity can be used to show that a language is easy to prove. 1 Introduction Interactive protocols
ZeroKnowledge Proofs and Arguments
, 1996
"... Reproduction of all or part of this work is permitted for educational or research use on condition that this copyright notice is included in any copy. See back inner page for a list of recent publications in the BRICS Report Series. Copies may be obtained by contacting: BRICS ..."
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Reproduction of all or part of this work is permitted for educational or research use on condition that this copyright notice is included in any copy. See back inner page for a list of recent publications in the BRICS Report Series. Copies may be obtained by contacting: BRICS
On the Concrete Complexity of ZeroKnowledge Proofs
 Journal of Cryptology
, 1990
"... The fact that there are zeroknowledge proofs for all languages in NP has, potentially, enormous implications to cryptography. For cryptographers, the issue is no longer "which languages in NP have zeroknowledge proofs" but rather "which languages in NP have practical zeroknowledge ..."
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proofs". Thus, the concrete complexity of zeroknowledge proofs for different languages must be established. In this paper, we study the concrete complexity of the known general methods for constructing zeroknowledge proofs. We establish that circuitbased methods have the potential of producing
Resettable zeroknowledge
, 2000
"... We introduce the notion of Resettable ZeroKnowledge (rZK), a new security measure for cryptographic protocols which strengthens the classical notion of zeroknowledge. In essence, an rZK protocol is one that remains zero knowledge even if an adversary can interact with the prover many times, each ..."
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Cited by 80 (6 self)
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, each time resetting the prover to its initial state and forcing it to use the same random tape. All known examples of zeroknowledge proofs and arguments are trivially breakable in this setting. Moreover, by definition, all zeroknowledge proofs of knowledge are breakable in this setting. Under general
The knowledge complexity of interactive proof systems
 in Proc. 27th Annual Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science
, 1985
"... Abstract. Usually, a proof of a theorem contains more knowledge than the mere fact that the theorem is true. For instance, to prove that a graph is Hamiltonian it suffices to exhibit a Hamiltonian tour in it; however, this seems to contain more knowledge than the single bit Hamiltonian/nonHamiltoni ..."
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Cited by 1267 (42 self)
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/nonHamiltonian. In this paper a computational complexity theory of the "knowledge " contained in a proof is developed. Zeroknowledge proofs are defined as those proofs that convey no additional knowledge other than the correctness of the proposition in question. Examples of zeroknowledge proof systems are given
Definitions And Properties Of ZeroKnowledge Proof Systems
 Journal of Cryptology
, 1994
"... In this paper we investigate some properties of zeroknowledge proofs, a notion introduced by Goldwasser, Micali and Rackoff. We introduce and classify two definitions of zeroknowledge: auxiliary \Gamma input zeroknowledge and blackbox \Gamma simulation zeroknowledge. We explain why auxiliaryinp ..."
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Cited by 132 (10 self)
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zeroknowledge implies auxiliaryinput zeroknowledge (which in turn implies the [GMR1] definition). We argue that all known zeroknowledge proofs are in fact blackboxsimulation zeroknowledge (i.e., were proved zeroknowledge using blackboxsimulation of the verifier). As a result, all known zeroknowledge
Proofs that Yield Nothing but Their Validity or All Languages in NP Have ZeroKnowledge Proof Systems
 JOURNAL OF THE ACM
, 1991
"... In this paper the generality and wide applicability of Zeroknowledge proofs, a notion introduced by Goldwasser, Micali, and Rackoff is demonstrated. These are probabilistic and interactive proofs that, for the members of a language, efficiently demonstrate membership in the language without convey ..."
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Cited by 430 (44 self)
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conveying any additional knowledge. All previously known zeroknowledge proofs were only for numbertheoretic languages in NP fl CONP. Under the assumption that secure encryption functions exist or by using “physical means for hiding information, ‘ ‘ it is shown that all languages in NP have zeroknowledge
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