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176,954
Termweighting approaches in automatic text retrieval
 INFORMATION PROCESSING AND MANAGEMENT
, 1988
"... The experimental evidence accumulated over the past 20 years indicates that text indexing systems based on the assignment of appropriately weighted single terms produce retrieval results that are superior to those obtainable with other more elaborate text representations. These results depend crucia ..."
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Cited by 2159 (10 self)
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The experimental evidence accumulated over the past 20 years indicates that text indexing systems based on the assignment of appropriately weighted single terms produce retrieval results that are superior to those obtainable with other more elaborate text representations. These results depend crucially on the choice of effective termweighting systems. This article summarizes the insights gained in automatic term weighting, and provides baseline singletermindexing models with which other more elaborate content analysis procedures can be compared.
On Sequential Monte Carlo Sampling Methods for Bayesian Filtering
 STATISTICS AND COMPUTING
, 2000
"... In this article, we present an overview of methods for sequential simulation from posterior distributions. These methods are of particular interest in Bayesian filtering for discrete time dynamic models that are typically nonlinear and nonGaussian. A general importance sampling framework is develop ..."
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Cited by 1032 (76 self)
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In this article, we present an overview of methods for sequential simulation from posterior distributions. These methods are of particular interest in Bayesian filtering for discrete time dynamic models that are typically nonlinear and nonGaussian. A general importance sampling framework is developed that unifies many of the methods which have been proposed over the last few decades in several different scientific disciplines. Novel extensions to the existing methods are also proposed. We show in particular how to incorporate local linearisation methods similar to those which have previously been employed in the deterministic filtering literature; these lead to very effective importance distributions. Furthermore we describe a method which uses RaoBlackwellisation in order to take advantage of the analytic structure present in some important classes of statespace models. In a final section we develop algorithms for prediction, smoothing and evaluation of the likelihood in dynamic models.
FeatureRich PartofSpeech Tagging with a Cyclic Dependency Network
 IN PROCEEDINGS OF HLTNAACL
, 2003
"... We present a new partofspeech tagger that demonstrates the following ideas: (i) explicit use of both preceding and following tag contexts via a dependency network representation, (ii) broad use of lexical features, including jointly conditioning on multiple consecutive words, (iii) effective ..."
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Cited by 660 (23 self)
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We present a new partofspeech tagger that demonstrates the following ideas: (i) explicit use of both preceding and following tag contexts via a dependency network representation, (ii) broad use of lexical features, including jointly conditioning on multiple consecutive words, (iii) effective use of priors in conditional loglinear models, and (iv) finegrained modeling of unknown word features. Using these ideas together, the resulting tagger gives a 97.24% accuracy on the Penn Treebank WSJ, an error reduction of 4.4% on the best previous single automatically learned tagging result.
Mixtures of Probabilistic Principal Component Analysers
, 1998
"... Principal component analysis (PCA) is one of the most popular techniques for processing, compressing and visualising data, although its effectiveness is limited by its global linearity. While nonlinear variants of PCA have been proposed, an alternative paradigm is to capture data complexity by a com ..."
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Cited by 537 (6 self)
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Principal component analysis (PCA) is one of the most popular techniques for processing, compressing and visualising data, although its effectiveness is limited by its global linearity. While nonlinear variants of PCA have been proposed, an alternative paradigm is to capture data complexity by a combination of local linear PCA projections. However, conventional PCA does not correspond to a probability density, and so there is no unique way to combine PCA models. Previous attempts to formulate mixture models for PCA have therefore to some extent been ad hoc. In this paper, PCA is formulated within a maximumlikelihood framework, based on a specific form of Gaussian latent variable model. This leads to a welldefined mixture model for probabilistic principal component analysers, whose parameters can be determined using an EM algorithm. We discuss the advantages of this model in the context of clustering, density modelling and local dimensionality reduction, and we demonstrate its applicat...
Probabilistic Principal Component Analysis
 Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series B
, 1999
"... Principal component analysis (PCA) is a ubiquitous technique for data analysis and processing, but one which is not based upon a probability model. In this paper we demonstrate how the principal axes of a set of observed data vectors may be determined through maximumlikelihood estimation of paramet ..."
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Cited by 703 (5 self)
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Principal component analysis (PCA) is a ubiquitous technique for data analysis and processing, but one which is not based upon a probability model. In this paper we demonstrate how the principal axes of a set of observed data vectors may be determined through maximumlikelihood estimation of parameters in a latent variable model closely related to factor analysis. We consider the properties of the associated likelihood function, giving an EM algorithm for estimating the principal subspace iteratively, and discuss, with illustrative examples, the advantages conveyed by this probabilistic approach to PCA. Keywords: Principal component analysis
Functional discovery via a compendium of expression profiles. Cell 102:109
, 2000
"... have been devised to survey gene functions en masse either computationally (Marcotte et al., 1999) or experimentally; among these, highly parallel assays of ..."
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Cited by 537 (8 self)
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have been devised to survey gene functions en masse either computationally (Marcotte et al., 1999) or experimentally; among these, highly parallel assays of
A Practical Guide to Wavelet Analysis
, 1998
"... A practical stepbystep guide to wavelet analysis is given, with examples taken from time series of the El Nio Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The guide includes a comparison to the windowed Fourier transform, the choice of an appropriate wavelet basis function, edge effects due to finitelength t ..."
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Cited by 833 (3 self)
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A practical stepbystep guide to wavelet analysis is given, with examples taken from time series of the El Nio Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The guide includes a comparison to the windowed Fourier transform, the choice of an appropriate wavelet basis function, edge effects due to finitelength time series, and the relationship between wavelet scale and Fourier frequency. New statistical significance tests for wavelet power spectra are developed by deriving theoretical wavelet spectra for white and red noise processes and using these to establish significance levels and confidence intervals. It is shown that smoothing in time or scale can be used to increase the confidence of the wavelet spectrum. Empirical formulas are given for the effect of smoothing on significance levels and confidence intervals. Extensions to wavelet analysis such as filtering, the power Hovmller, crosswavelet spectra, and coherence are described. The statistical significance tests are used to give a qu...
Scatter/Gather: A Clusterbased Approach to Browsing Large Document Collections
, 1992
"... Document clustering has not been well received as an information retrieval tool. Objections to its use fall into two main categories: first, that clustering is too slow for large corpora (with running time often quadratic in the number of documents); and second, that clustering does not appreciably ..."
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Cited by 772 (12 self)
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Document clustering has not been well received as an information retrieval tool. Objections to its use fall into two main categories: first, that clustering is too slow for large corpora (with running time often quadratic in the number of documents); and second, that clustering does not appreciably improve retrieval. We argue that these problems arise only when clustering is used in an attempt to improve conventional search techniques. However, looking at clustering as an information access tool in its own right obviates these objections, and provides a powerful new access paradigm. We present a document browsing technique that employs document clustering as its primary operation. We also present fast (linear time) clustering algorithms which support this interactive browsing paradigm. 1 Introduction Document clustering has been extensively investigated as a methodology for improving document search and retrieval (see [15] for an excellent review). The general assumption is that mutua...
The selfduality equations on a Riemann surface
 Proc. Lond. Math. Soc., III. Ser
, 1987
"... In this paper we shall study a special class of solutions of the selfdual YangMills equations. The original selfduality equations which arose in mathematical physics were defined on Euclidean 4space. The physically relevant solutions were the ones with finite actionâ€”the socalled 'instanton ..."
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Cited by 524 (6 self)
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In this paper we shall study a special class of solutions of the selfdual YangMills equations. The original selfduality equations which arose in mathematical physics were defined on Euclidean 4space. The physically relevant solutions were the ones with finite actionâ€”the socalled 'instantons'. The same equations may be
Making LargeScale Support Vector Machine Learning Practical
, 1998
"... Training a support vector machine (SVM) leads to a quadratic optimization problem with bound constraints and one linear equality constraint. Despite the fact that this type of problem is well understood, there are many issues to be considered in designing an SVM learner. In particular, for large lea ..."
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Cited by 620 (1 self)
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Training a support vector machine (SVM) leads to a quadratic optimization problem with bound constraints and one linear equality constraint. Despite the fact that this type of problem is well understood, there are many issues to be considered in designing an SVM learner. In particular, for large learning tasks with many training examples, offtheshelf optimization techniques for general quadratic programs quickly become intractable in their memory and time requirements. SVM light1 is an implementation of an SVM learner which addresses the problem of large tasks. This chapter presents algorithmic and computational results developed for SVM light V2.0, which make largescale SVM training more practical. The results give guidelines for the application of SVMs to large domains.
Results 1  10
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176,954