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401,859
Maximum likelihood from incomplete data via the EM algorithm
 JOURNAL OF THE ROYAL STATISTICAL SOCIETY, SERIES B
, 1977
"... A broadly applicable algorithm for computing maximum likelihood estimates from incomplete data is presented at various levels of generality. Theory showing the monotone behaviour of the likelihood and convergence of the algorithm is derived. Many examples are sketched, including missing value situat ..."
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Cited by 11827 (17 self)
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A broadly applicable algorithm for computing maximum likelihood estimates from incomplete data is presented at various levels of generality. Theory showing the monotone behaviour of the likelihood and convergence of the algorithm is derived. Many examples are sketched, including missing value situations, applications to grouped, censored or truncated data, finite mixture models, variance component estimation, hyperparameter estimation, iteratively reweighted least squares and factor analysis.
Model Checking Programs
, 2003
"... The majority of work carried out in the formal methods community throughout the last three decades has (for good reasons) been devoted to special languages designed to make it easier to experiment with mechanized formal methods such as theorem provers, proof checkers and model checkers. In this pape ..."
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Cited by 584 (63 self)
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The majority of work carried out in the formal methods community throughout the last three decades has (for good reasons) been devoted to special languages designed to make it easier to experiment with mechanized formal methods such as theorem provers, proof checkers and model checkers
Extended Static Checking for Java
, 2002
"... Software development and maintenance are costly endeavors. The cost can be reduced if more software defects are detected earlier in the development cycle. This paper introduces the Extended Static Checker for Java (ESC/Java), an experimental compiletime program checker that finds common programming ..."
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Cited by 632 (22 self)
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Software development and maintenance are costly endeavors. The cost can be reduced if more software defects are detected earlier in the development cycle. This paper introduces the Extended Static Checker for Java (ESC/Java), an experimental compiletime program checker that finds common programming errors. The checker is powered by verificationcondition generation and automatic theoremproving techniques. It provides programmers with a simple annotation language with which programmer design decisions can be expressed formally. ESC/Java examines the annotated software and warns of inconsistencies between the design decisions recorded in the annotations and the actual code, and also warns of potential runtime errors in the code. This paper gives an overview of the checker architecture and annotation language and describes our experience applying the checker to tens of thousands of lines of Java programs.
Model checking and abstraction
 ACM Transactions on Programming Languages and Systems
, 1994
"... software developers are using the Java language as the language of choice on many applications. This is due to the effective use of the objectoriented (OO) paradigm to develop large software projects and the ability of the Java language to support the increasing use of web technologies in business ..."
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Cited by 752 (56 self)
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software developers are using the Java language as the language of choice on many applications. This is due to the effective use of the objectoriented (OO) paradigm to develop large software projects and the ability of the Java language to support the increasing use of web technologies in business applications. The recent release of the Java version 5.0 has further increased its popularity due to the inclusion of new features that exist in other OO languages. The transition from Java 1.4.x to Java 1.5.x has provided the programmer with more flexibility when implementing programs in Java. In this paper we present the first study that investigates how the characteristics of a class are combined, thereby providing feedback on how the features provided by Java 1.4.x or earlier and Java 1.5.x or earlier are currently used. The study uses a taxonomy of OO classes that provides a mechanism to catalog any class written in Java into one of a finite set of groups. A detailed description on how we enumerated all the possible groups of Java classes is also provided. Using TaxTOOLJ (a Taxonomy Tool for the ObjectOriented Language Java) we cataloged over 155k classes from a crosssection of Java applications written in Java 1.4.x and Java 1.5.x to identify the distribution of groups used by developers. We use the data from the study to create prediction models that would allow developers to estimate the number of different groups of classes, fields and methods that are expected to be generated for large Java applications. This knowledge would be of significant benefit to aid developers in testing and maintenance activities during the software process. 1
ProofCarrying Code
, 1997
"... This paper describes proofcarrying code (PCC), a mechanism by which a host system can determine with certainty that it is safe to execute a program supplied (possibly in binary form) by an untrusted source. For this to be possible, the untrusted code producer must supply with the code a safety proo ..."
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Cited by 1266 (27 self)
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This paper describes proofcarrying code (PCC), a mechanism by which a host system can determine with certainty that it is safe to execute a program supplied (possibly in binary form) by an untrusted source. For this to be possible, the untrusted code producer must supply with the code a safety
Proof verification and hardness of approximation problems
 IN PROC. 33RD ANN. IEEE SYMP. ON FOUND. OF COMP. SCI
, 1992
"... We show that every language in NP has a probablistic verifier that checks membership proofs for it using logarithmic number of random bits and by examining a constant number of bits in the proof. If a string is in the language, then there exists a proof such that the verifier accepts with probabilit ..."
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Cited by 825 (39 self)
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We show that every language in NP has a probablistic verifier that checks membership proofs for it using logarithmic number of random bits and by examining a constant number of bits in the proof. If a string is in the language, then there exists a proof such that the verifier accepts
Probabilistic checking of proofs: a new characterization of NP
 Journal of the ACM
, 1998
"... Abstract. We give a new characterization of NP: the class NP contains exactly those languages L for which membership proofs (a proof that an input x is in L) can be verified probabilistically in polynomial time using logarithmic number of random bits and by reading sublogarithmic number of bits from ..."
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Cited by 438 (27 self)
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Abstract. We give a new characterization of NP: the class NP contains exactly those languages L for which membership proofs (a proof that an input x is in L) can be verified probabilistically in polynomial time using logarithmic number of random bits and by reading sublogarithmic number of bits
Symbolic Model Checking without BDDs
, 1999
"... Symbolic Model Checking [3, 14] has proven to be a powerful technique for the verification of reactive systems. BDDs [2] have traditionally been used as a symbolic representation of the system. In this paper we show how boolean decision procedures, like Stalmarck's Method [16] or the Davis ..."
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Cited by 911 (74 self)
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Symbolic Model Checking [3, 14] has proven to be a powerful technique for the verification of reactive systems. BDDs [2] have traditionally been used as a symbolic representation of the system. In this paper we show how boolean decision procedures, like Stalmarck's Method [16] or the Davis
LowDensity ParityCheck Codes
, 1963
"... Preface The Noisy Channel Coding Theorem discovered by C. E. Shannon in 1948 offered communication engineers the possibility of reducing error rates on noisy channels to negligible levels without sacrificing data rates. The primary obstacle to the practical use of this theorem has been the equipment ..."
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Cited by 1355 (1 self)
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Preface The Noisy Channel Coding Theorem discovered by C. E. Shannon in 1948 offered communication engineers the possibility of reducing error rates on noisy channels to negligible levels without sacrificing data rates. The primary obstacle to the practical use of this theorem has been the equipment complexity and the computation time required to decode the noisy received data.
Symbolic Model Checking: 10^20 States and Beyond
, 1992
"... Many different methods have been devised for automatically verifying finite state systems by examining stategraph models of system behavior. These methods all depend on decision procedures that explicitly represent the state space using a list or a table that grows in proportion to the number of st ..."
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Cited by 755 (40 self)
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of states. We describe a general method that represents the state space symbolical/y instead of explicitly. The generality of our method comes from using a dialect of the MuCalculus as the primary specification language. We describe a model checking algorithm for MuCalculus formulas that uses Bryantâ€™s
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