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An introduction to Kolmogorov Complexity and its Applications: Preface to the First Edition
, 1997
"... This document has been prepared using the L a T E X system. We thank Donald Knuth for T E X, Leslie Lamport for L a T E X, and Jan van der Steen at CWI for online help. Some figures were prepared by John Tromp using the xpic program. The London Mathematical Society kindly gave permission to reproduc ..."
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Cited by 2143 (120 self)
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to reproduce a long extract by A.M. Turing. The Indian Statistical Institute, through the editor of Sankhy¯a, kindly gave permission to quote A.N. Kolmogorov. We gratefully acknowledge the financial support by NSF Grant DCR8606366, ONR Grant N0001485k0445, ARO Grant DAAL0386K0171, the Natural Sciences
A New Kind of Science
, 2002
"... “Somebody says, ‘You know, you people always say that space is continuous. How do you know when you get to a small enough dimension that there really are enough points in between, that it isn’t just a lot of dots separated by little distances? ’ Or they say, ‘You know those quantum mechanical amplit ..."
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Cited by 850 (0 self)
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“Somebody says, ‘You know, you people always say that space is continuous. How do you know when you get to a small enough dimension that there really are enough points in between, that it isn’t just a lot of dots separated by little distances? ’ Or they say, ‘You know those quantum mechanical amplitudes you told me about, they’re so complicated and absurd, what makes you think those are right? Maybe they aren’t right. ’ Such remarks are obvious and are perfectly clear to anybody who is working on this problem. It does not do any good to point this out.” —Richard Feynman [1, p.161]
A public key cryptosystem and a signature scheme based on discrete logarithms
 Adv. in Cryptology, SpringerVerlag
, 1985
"... AbstractA new signature scheme is proposed, together with an implementation of the DiffieHellman key distribution scheme that achieves a public key cryptosystem. The security of both systems relies on the difficulty of computing discrete logarithms over finite fields. I. ..."
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Cited by 1520 (0 self)
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AbstractA new signature scheme is proposed, together with an implementation of the DiffieHellman key distribution scheme that achieves a public key cryptosystem. The security of both systems relies on the difficulty of computing discrete logarithms over finite fields. I.
Hierarchies from Fluxes in String Compactifications
, 2002
"... Warped compactifications with significant warping provide one of the few known mechanisms for naturally generating large hierarchies of physical scales. We demonstrate that this mechanism is realizable in string theory, and give examples involving orientifold compactifications of IIB string theory a ..."
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Cited by 724 (33 self)
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Warped compactifications with significant warping provide one of the few known mechanisms for naturally generating large hierarchies of physical scales. We demonstrate that this mechanism is realizable in string theory, and give examples involving orientifold compactifications of IIB string theory and Ftheory compactifications on CalabiYau fourfolds. In each case, the hierarchy of scales is fixed by a choice of RR and NS fluxes in the compact manifold. Our solutions involve compactifications of the KlebanovStrassler gravity dual to a confining N = 1 supersymmetric gauge theory, and the hierarchy reflects the small scale of chiral symmetry breaking in the dual gauge theory.
Asymptotic Confidence Intervals for Indirect Effects in Structural EQUATION MODELS
 IN SOCIOLOGICAL METHODOLOGY
, 1982
"... ..."
Image denoising using a scale mixture of Gaussians in the wavelet domain
 IEEE TRANS IMAGE PROCESSING
, 2003
"... We describe a method for removing noise from digital images, based on a statistical model of the coefficients of an overcomplete multiscale oriented basis. Neighborhoods of coefficients at adjacent positions and scales are modeled as the product of two independent random variables: a Gaussian vecto ..."
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Cited by 514 (17 self)
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We describe a method for removing noise from digital images, based on a statistical model of the coefficients of an overcomplete multiscale oriented basis. Neighborhoods of coefficients at adjacent positions and scales are modeled as the product of two independent random variables: a Gaussian vector and a hidden positive scalar multiplier. The latter modulates the local variance of the coefficients in the neighborhood, and is thus able to account for the empirically observed correlation between the coefficient amplitudes. Under this model, the Bayesian least squares estimate of each coefficient reduces to a weighted average of the local linear estimates over all possible values of the hidden multiplier variable. We demonstrate through simulations with images contaminated by additive white Gaussian noise that the performance of this method substantially surpasses that of previously published methods, both visually and in terms of mean squared error.
A Behavioral Notion of Subtyping
 ACM Transactions on Programming Languages and Systems
, 1994
"... The use of hierarchy is an important component of objectoriented design. Hierarchy allows the use of type families, in which higher level supertypes capture the behavior that all of their subtypes have in common. For this methodology to be effective, it is necessary to have a clear understanding of ..."
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Cited by 514 (18 self)
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The use of hierarchy is an important component of objectoriented design. Hierarchy allows the use of type families, in which higher level supertypes capture the behavior that all of their subtypes have in common. For this methodology to be effective, it is necessary to have a clear understanding of how subtypes and supertypes are related. This paper takes the position that the relationship should ensure that any property proved about supertype objects also holds for its subtype objects. It presents two ways of defining the subtype relation, each of which meets this criterion, and each of which is easy for programmers to use. The subtype relation is based on the specifications of the sub and supertypes; the paper presents a way of specifying types that makes it convenient to define the subtype relation. The paper also discusses the ramifications of this notion of subtyping on the design of type families.
Adhoc OnDemand Distance Vector Routing
 IN PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2ND IEEE WORKSHOP ON MOBILE COMPUTING SYSTEMS AND APPLICATIONS
, 1997
"... An adhoc network is the cooperative engagement of a collection of mobile nodes without the required intervention of any centralized access point or existing infrastructure. In this paper we present Adhoc On Demand Distance Vector Routing (AODV), a novel algorithm for the operation of such adhoc n ..."
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Cited by 3167 (15 self)
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An adhoc network is the cooperative engagement of a collection of mobile nodes without the required intervention of any centralized access point or existing infrastructure. In this paper we present Adhoc On Demand Distance Vector Routing (AODV), a novel algorithm for the operation of such adhoc networks. Each Mobile Host operates as a specialized router, and routes are obtained as needed (i.e., ondemand) with little or no reliance on periodic advertisements. Our new routing algorithm is quite suitable for a dynamic selfstarting network, as required by users wishing to utilize adhoc networks. AODV provides loopfree routes even while repairing broken links. Because the protocol does not require global periodic routing advertisements, the demand on the overall bandwidth available to the mobile nodes is substantially less than in those protocols that do necessitate such advertisements. Nevertheless we can still maintain most of the advantages of basic distancevector routing mechanisms. We show that our algorithm scales to large populations of mobile nodes wishing to form adhoc networks. We also include an evaluation methodology and simulation results to verify the operation of our algorithm.
Comparison of parametric representations for monosyllabic word recognition in continuously spoken sentences
 ACOUSTICS, SPEECH AND SIGNAL PROCESSING, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON
, 1980
"... Several parametric representations of the acoustic signal were compared as to word recognition performance in a syllableoriented continuous speech recognition system. The vocabulary included many phonetically similar monosyllabic words, therefore the emphasis was on ability to retain phonetically ..."
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Cited by 1089 (2 self)
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Several parametric representations of the acoustic signal were compared as to word recognition performance in a syllableoriented continuous speech recognition system. The vocabulary included many phonetically similar monosyllabic words, therefore the emphasis was on ability to retain phonetically significant acoustic information in the face of syntactic and duration variations. For each ~ arameter set (based on a melfrequency cepstrum, a linear frequency cepstrum, a linear prediction cepstrum, a linear prediction spectrum, or a set of reflection coefficients), word templates were generated using an efficient dynamic method, and test data were time registered wi th the templates. A set of ten melfrequency cepstrum coefficients computed every 6 " 4 ms resulted in the best performance, namely 96.. 5 % and 9500 % recognition with each of two speakers.. The superior performance of the melfrequency cepstrum coefficients may be attributed to the fact that they better represent the perceptually relevant aspects of the shortterm speech spectrum.
Results 1  10
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150,816